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Britannia - History

Britannia - History


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Britannia

(SwStr: T. 405; I. 189'; b. 26'; dph. 11'; ~. 12.5 k.; a. 1
30-pdr. R., 2 12-pdr. R., 2 24-pdr. How.)

Britannia, a side-wheel steamer, was built in 1862 at Leith, Scotland; captured as a blockade runner by Santiago de Cuba in the Bahama Islands 25 June 1863; sent to Boston for adjudication; purchased by the Navy Department in September 1863; and commissioned 16 September 1863, Acting Master H. H. Savage in command.

After repairs at Boston Navy Yard, she was ordered to join the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron off Wilmington, N. C. Enroute she developed boiler trouble and had to be towed to Beaufort, S. C., for temporary repairs. She then proceeded to Hampton Roads, VA., for permanent repairs Britannia left Hampton Roads at the end of November and joined the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron. Between 24 and 16 March 1864 she was a unit of an expedition to Squadron and Roar Creek, N. C., during which one Confederate schooner was destroyed.

On 8 April 1864 she rescued the prize sloop Swallow which was in distress. During 07 May 1864 she engaged CSS Raleigh off New Inlet, N. C,., and in August she was slightly damaged when shrapenel exploded close aboard during an engagement with CSS Tallahassee who escaped, after a running fight, into Wilmington, N. Britannia next operated in the attacks on Fort Fisher, N. (24-25 December 1864 and 13 15 January 1865) . Her gunfire forced the surrender of a battery and the capture of about 70 prisoners.

In January 1866 she was ordered to join the East Gulf Blockading Squadron, where she remained until the close of the war Between 23 February 27 April 1865 she took part in joint operations in the vicinity o£ St. Marks, Fla., which resulted in the closing of St. Marks River to Confederate forces and considerable damage to the saltworks in the vicinity.

Britannia was sold in Philadelphia 10 August 1865.


HMS Britannia (1904)

HMS Britannia was a King Edward VII-class pre-dreadnought battleship of the Royal Navy. She was named after Britannia, the Latin name of Great Britain under Roman rule. The ship was built by Portsmouth Dockyard between 1904 and 1906. Armed with a battery of four 12-inch (305 mm) and four 9.2 in (234 mm) guns, she and her sister ships marked a significant advance in offensive power compared to earlier British battleship designs that did not carry the 9.2 in guns.

  • 15,585 to 15,885 long tons (15,835 to 16,140 t) (normal)
  • 17,009 to 17,290 long tons (17,282 to 17,567 t) (fully loaded)
  • 16 water-tube boilers
  • 18,000 ihp (13,420 kW)
  • 2 × triple-expansion steam engines
  • 2 × screws
  • 4 × BL 12 in (305 mm) Mk IX guns
  • 4 × BL 9.2 in (234 mm) Mk X guns
  • 10 × BL 6 in (152 mm) Mk VII guns
  • 14 × 12-pounder 3 in (76 mm) guns
  • 14 × 3-pounder 47 mm (1.9 in) guns
  • 4 × 18-in (450-mm)torpedo tubes (submerged)
    : 9 in (229 mm) : 8–12 in (203–305 mm) : 12 in :
    • Main battery: 8–12 in
    • 9.2-inch battery: 5–9 in (127–229 mm)

    After commissioning in September 1906, she served briefly with the Atlantic Fleet from October to March 1907 before transferring to the Channel Fleet. She then joined the Home Fleet in 1909. In 1912, she, along with her sister ships, was assigned to the 3rd Battle Squadron, part of the Home Fleet. That year, the squadron went to the Mediterranean Sea during the First Balkan War as part of an international blockade of Montenegro. In 1913, the ship returned to British waters, where she was reassigned to the Second Division, Home Fleet.

    When the First World War broke out, Britannia was transferred back to the 3rd Battle Squadron, which was assigned to the Grand Fleet, the main British fleet during the war. Through 1914 and 1915, the ships frequently went to sea to search for German vessels, but Britannia saw no action during this period. By the end of the year, the Grand Fleet stopped operating with the older 3rd Battle Squadron ships, and in 1916, she was attached to the 2nd Detached Squadron, then serving in the Adriatic Sea. After a refit in 1917, she conducted patrol and convoy escort duties in the Atlantic. On 9 November 1918, just two days before the end of the war, she was torpedoed by a German submarine off Cape Trafalgar and sank with the loss of 50 men. Britannia was one of the last British warships to be sunk in the war.


    The world standard in knowledge since 1768

    For more than 75 years, Pluto was regarded as the ninth planet. In 2006 its size, icy composition, and eccentric orbit led astronomers to reclassify it as a dwarf planet. This resulted in an outcry from the public, who became protective of a ball of ice located some 3.7 billion miles from the Sun.

    Named for the Greek goddess of discord, this dwarf planet certainly caused a hubbub when its discovery was announced in 2005. It was so close to Pluto in size that it led the International Astronomical Union to reconsider and eventually revoke Pluto’s status as the ninth planet.

    New Subscription Bundle Offer!

    Our new Britannica Kids + Kids’ Encyclopedia Bundle starts with the ultimate, educator-approved homework helper for grades pre-K through high school: Britannica Kids. You also receive the beautiful, hardcover All New Kids’ Encyclopedia – 400+ fun-filled pages of fascinating facts the whole family will enjoy.


    The Biggest Fraud in TV History?

    These words have been used by academics and professionals to describe the similarities between Sky TV's Britannia - the most expensively produced drama in that broadcaster's history - and Tribus: the original, academically submitted and copyrighted creation of Ben Krushkoff (created whilst a mature student at Bath Spa University). Based on the growing opinion of those in academia, including the head of the UK’s ‘flagship Creative Writing course’, this would make it arguably the biggest case of intellectual property (IP) fraud in the history of television.

    This site has been created as a platform to showcase those similarities, alongside the links between Krushkoff and his body of work (including a treatment and pilot script) and the man known as the ‘mastermind’ behind Britannia, one of its ɼreators' James Richardson (Bronson, Football Factory etc.). It does this through a chain of videos, shown below, which provide: the background story of how it is believed Krushkoff’s work ended up in the hands of the creators/writers of Sky’s show (via a former senior TV editor at The Sun newspaper) a summary of the academically referenced similarities, including how the all-but-impossible odds of their occurrence in just one scene can be calculated and the legal steps Krushkoff has taken (up until Dec 2019), to assert his rights over his original creation, during which another, highly disturbing coincidence - or potentially nefarious scheme - was unearthed.

    Both Tribus and Britannia (Season One), were written as nine-episode, multi-season, fictionalised televisual dramas, about the tribes of Ancient Britain during the Roman Invasion of 43AD. Both are told through multiple perspectives (protagonist and antagonist Celtic tribes, the Druids and the Roman invaders). Both have ‘a clash of civilisations’ as their central theme. And the genesis of both stories occurs during their respective all-important first episodes: Britannia’s was written by acclaimed English screenwriter Jez Butterworth (Richardson’s ex-brother-in-law) and his brother Tom ɺround the time of Brexit' (June 28th, 2016) the intended title of Krushkoff’s own pilot episode (submitted on March, 2016) was ‘Once Upon a Time in Britannia’.

    But the alarming amount of similarities only just begin with the titles.

    Definition of 'hack' (Cambridge Dictionary):

    Noun [C] (writer): a journalist (= writer for newspapers or magazines) whose work is low in quality or does not have much imagination.

    If you're new to the story and case, the best place to start is by watching the following video, detailing the link between the two bodies of work in question - Tribus (Krushkoff, 2014-16) and Britannia (Episode One: Butterworth and Butterworth, 2016) - through the only person outside of the university to have ever been given a full copy of Krushkoff's script: television journalist and editor, Karen Hyland (The Sun, The Mirror, Entertainment Daily). Hyland had described Tribus as 'the greatest story that's never been told'.

    The above video merely touches upon the substantial amount of similarities, described as 'staggering' and 'outrageous' by highly respected academics and industry professionals. To see a full breakdown of those similarities, please scroll down to the next section and look at the videos, directly below. Alternatively, if you're interested in Part Two of the above story - the 'what happened next' - and want to find out about what a growing amout of people consider a deeply sinister connection between Krushkoff's next door neighbour and James Richardson, please go straight to the video in the legal case section.

    Definition of 𧫚ptation' (Cambridge Dictionary):

    Noun [C]: a film, book, play, etc. that has been made from another film, book, play, etc.

    Nobody is accusing Britianna of being a line-for-line copy of the Tribus (spec script or treatment). It isn’t. However, if anybody wanted to replicate an original work of literature and hide the fact (which would naturally be the case if they didn't want to credit - and pay - the source), then it would be absurd to expect such a copy would be made verbatim.

    Rather, it is believed that an adaptation of the fictionalised story told in the pilot script of Tribus, a totally original creation by Krushkoff, had to have been used by Jez and Tom Butterworth when writing the first episode of Britannia (regardless of whether they were they aware of where the material had come from or not). In both instances, the first episodes were the genesis of the entire stories in both shows. Furthermore, a number of entirely fictionalised elements of the pilot script, along with elements of Krushkoff’s treatment and show bible, can also be seen mirrored in different parts of Britannia's first season.

    The following three videos analyse some of those similarities accordingly (for details of the area of law which prohibits adpatations taking place, please go straight to the legal case, below):

    a) An overview of all similarities, which asks 'in which work do these elements come from - Tribus or Britannia' (a rhetorical question, answered at the end):

    b) How a group of small odds, in just one scene comparison (the inciting incident between the tribes in both shows), accumulate to form a 150-million-to-one+ chance of probability of indepent creation:

    c) A detailed breakdown of how the above comparison videos were made, through the deconstruction of one scene (the inciting incident/wedding scene, featured above) includes a reading from the Tribus spec script:

    Please come back to the site in the near future for a written breakdown of all the above, along with further videos detailing the presumed (and numerous) adaptations to characters and names, etc.. alongside more individual scenes with script readings. Alternatively you can subscribe to Krushkoff's YouTube channel or follow the main social media sites for updates on his quest for accreditation (links available here)


    Britannia Beach History

    BC Museum of MIning Archives. Footage from 1931-1958.

    Britannia Beach got its name from the nearby Britannia Range of Mountains, which form the east wall of the mountainous shore of Howe Sound, south of Britannia Beach.

    Around 1859, Royal Navy hydrographer, Captain Richards of HMS Plumper, named the range of mountains for HMS Britannia, the third of a series of vessels to bear that name.

    The history of Britannia Beach is often associated with the Britannia Mine.

    A copper discovery on Britannia Mountain by Dr. A. A. Forbes in 1888 led to the development of the Britannia Mine. In 1899, a mining engineer named George Robinson was able to convince financial backers that the property had great potential. For several years, companies were formed, merged and dissolved in efforts to raise capital. The Britannia Mining and Smelting Company, a branch of the Howe Sound Company, finally commenced mining in the early 1900s, and owned the site for the next sixty years. The first ore was shipped to the Crofton Smelter on Vancouver Island in 1904, and the mine achieved full production in 1905.

    A town had grown up around the mine and a Post Office opened on January 1, 1907 where it was named after the nearby mine.

    In 1912 John Wedderburn Dunbar Moodie was authorized to upgrade the operation and increase production from the mine. Improvements in the mineral separation processes stimulated plans for a new mill (No. 2), which was completed in 1916 and was capable of producing 2000 tons of ore per day. The onset of World War I increased the demand for copper and the price rose sharply.

    In March 1921 during a brief period when the mine was shut down, mill No. 2 burnt to the ground.

    On March 21, 1915, an avalanche destroyed the Jane Camp. Sixty men, women and children were killed and it was a terrible blow to the tiny community.

    Construction began immediately on a new, safer town at the 2,200-foot (670 m) level above the Britannia Beach site. This portion of the community became known as the “Town Site” or “Mount Sheer”.

    Mount Sheer or Upper Town Mining Camp sits in a hanging valley of Mount Sheer above Britannia Beach, 9 September 1919.
    It was built to replace the destroyed Jane Camp

    On October 28, 1921, after a full day of torrential rain, a massive flood destroyed much of that portion of the community and mine operations that existed on the lower beach area. 50 of 110 homes were destroyed and thirty-seven men, women and children lost their lives. The flood was caused because the mining company had dammed up a portion of the Creek during the construction of a railway, and when this dam gave way the town below was flooded.

    Being an isolated, close knit community which could only be accessed by boat, life in both of Britannia’s towns was never dull. Facilities included libraries, club rooms, billiard rooms, swimming pools, tennis courts and even bowling. A thriving social calendar saw sporting events, theatrical productions, dances, movies and parties held throughout the year.

    The mine boomed in the late 1920s and early 1930s, becoming the largest producer of copper in the British Commonwealth by 1929, under the management of the mine manager C.P. Browning.

    In the 1940s there were talks to build an artist village in Britannia’s hills, but that plan did not proceed.

    Miners unionized in 1946 and suffered through their first strike. Low copper prices saw the Britannia Mine Company reduced to seven employees, and in 1959 it went into liquidation.

    In 1963 the Anaconda Mining Company bought the property and production continued for the next eleven years. 300 employees managed to produce 60,000 tons of concentrate each year. Ferries services stopped around May 1965 after the highway and railway connections had been constructed. The connections made it easier to transport the copper, but high operating costs and taxes eventually forced the mine to close on November 1, 1974.


    Andra

    Despite her love for her sister, Amena, she is not scared to defend the ways of the Devni and their aunt, Cara, and pull rank on her sister to put her in place. Just when Amena was about to bring Andra onside, Veran arrives to inform the Devni Queen that Amena was not made Queen by decree of the Druids, as Amena had told Andra. Andra, enraged by this revelation, threatens punishment on her sister and locks her away. Harka then arrives to reveal what really happened in their family's past.

    Andra is not Amena's sister, and is in fact a consequence of a time when their father raped Amena. Veran took Andra away to try and fix the situation and when returning her, Amena was then told to call her sister. Veran sent Amena to the Cantii tribe and made Andra Queen of the Devni tribe. This was after their mother was enraged as to what their father had done, and she indeed entombed him alive.

    She was devastated by this revelation and always believed she didn't know the full truth. With this, she told the Isca elders to kill themselves after she committed suicide.


    Britannia Bridge

    Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article.

    Britannia Bridge, Welsh Pont Britannia, railroad bridge in northern Wales spanning Menai Strait, between Bangor and the Isle of Anglesey. It was designed and built by Robert Stephenson, who, with his father, George Stephenson, built the first successful locomotive. Unable to use an arch design because the Admiralty would not allow the strait to be closed to the passage of sailing ships, Stephenson conceived the idea of using a pair of completely enclosed iron tubes, rectangular in section, supported in the centre by a pier built on Britannia Rock. William Fairbairn carried out a series of metallurgical tests, and from 1846 to 1849 the work was executed, the iron tubes being floated into position and lifted by capstan and hydraulic power. The bridge, which carried the London–Holyhead railway across the strait, was severely damaged by fire in 1970. During the repairs, the tubes were replaced by concrete decks—one for the railway, a second for motor traffic—supported by steel arches.


    What’s the real history behind ‘Britannia’?

    It&rsquos AD 43 and the Romans are coming. With the advertising tagline &ldquoNo one wants to be civilised", Sky Atlantic&rsquos new sword and sandals TV series Britannia is about to invade our living rooms with &ndash if the trailers are to be believed &ndash more than a fair smattering of orgiastic violence, fire and blood. Here, archaeologist and author Miles Russell previews the coming season&hellip

    This competition is now closed

    Published: January 17, 2018 at 9:26 am

    The Roman invasion of Britain is an event which, perhaps rather strangely, has yet to be featured much in either TV or film. There have been any number of cinematic outings (as well as documentaries and books) about Queen Boudica, who led an uprising against the Romano-British government in AD 60/61 destroying the cities of Colchester, London and St Albans – but the initial stages of conquest have been largely ignored. Britannia, written by Jez Butterworth, suggests that this is all about to change: the publicity promises swords, sex, carnage and “a country dominated by powerful druids and warrior queens”. Whilst both the costumes and setting look reasonable (so far), how much of the series is actually drawn from real events?

    Here’s what we do and don’t know about the Roman invasion of Britain in AD 43.

    Who were the Celtic Britons?

    At the time of the invasion, Britain was an island which was politically fragmented, with multiple tribes each led by a chief, king or queen who – if we believe Roman writers – were constantly at war with one another. Some of the names of the British tribes, such as the Cantiaci (of Kent), the Trinovantes (of Essex) and the Durotriges (of Dorset), were preserved by the Roman government when they built brand new towns to win the hearts and minds of the indigenous population. Unfortunately, we know very little about the customs, lifestyle, outlook, language or religion of these individual tribes. Some had leaders who actively traded with the Mediterranean world, exchanging locally-produced cattle, grain, metal and slaves for wine, olive oil and exotic forms of glassware and pottery. Others seem to have actively opposed any kind of Roman influence.

    Why did the Romans invade Britain?

    The Roman Empire, which in the early 1st century AD stretched from Spain to Syria, was a resource-hungry superstate and Britain, on its north-western frontier, was a hugely attractive target. This was a land rich in metals (especially iron, tin, lead and gold), cattle and grain. Unfortunately for Rome, Britain lay beyond the civilised world, on the other side of ‘the Ocean’. Just getting there seemed a risky endeavour – especially if, as many Romans believed, the place was full of monsters and barbarians.

    Julius Caesar had led two expeditions to southern Britain in 55 and 54 BC and, although these ultimately came to nothing, he had been celebrated in Rome as a hero simply for daring to cross the sea. Caesar’s heirs meddled constantly in British politics, trying to bring order to the frontier-land by helping to resolve disputed royal successions and organising lucrative trade deals. By the time Claudius came to power in AD 41, several British aristocrats had formed alliances with Rome, visiting the city in person to pay their respects and leave offerings to the Roman gods. When the political situation in southern Britain became unstable, with warring tribes threatening both trade and the wider peace, Claudius deployed boots on the ground. The fact that he needed to draw public attention away from difficult issues at home, whilst simultaneously hoping to outdo the military achievements of the great Julius Caesar, probably helped to spur this on.

    What do we know about the invasion?

    Very little, as no contemporary record survives. The popular view today is that four legions together with auxiliary support, totalling between 30-40,000 soldiers, landed on the Kent coast and fought their way inland. But there is no real archaeological or historical evidence to support this.

    What we do know is that the ‘invasion’ appears to have been undertaken in two distinct phases. The first, led by senator Aulus Plautius, was probably a peace-keeping mission, which saw Plautius operating with a small force in order to negotiate a truce between the various British factions whilst hoping to restore certain British refugee monarchs to power. Not all the tribes were opposed to Rome in AD 43 and many leaders would have seen the emperor and his advisors as friends. Unfortunately, for whatever reason, negotiations broke down leaving the emperor no choice to trigger a second phase of the invasion, some months later. This was a calculated display of force, designed to shock and awe enemy elements into submission. Claudius himself led the reinforcements, bringing with him a number of war elephants (he intended to arrive in style). Shortly after, Roman troops marched into Camulodunum (Colchester), the centre of native resistance, and took the formal surrender of 11 British leaders.

    How did Britons respond to the invasion?

    Some, like the Trinovantes – a tribe based around what is now Colchester – seem to have actively resisted the advance of the Roman legions whilst others, such as the Atrebates (of Berkshire), supported the newcomers and were subsequently very well rewarded. The native town of Camulodunum (Colchester) was subjugated by the Roman military and had a legionary fortress built directly over it. Elsewhere, the Trinovantes were treated as a conquered people whilst the Catuvellauni tribe, who had helped the Romans, were awarded special status in the province and had a brand-new town, full of civic amenities, built for them at Verulamium (St Albans). Having lost the first stage of the war, the British resistance leader Caratacus fled west, stirring up tribes in what is now Wales against Rome. Eventually Caratacus was betrayed by the pro-Roman queen Cartimandua, and handed over to the emperor Claudius in chains.

    Was Aulus Plautius a real person?

    Yes, although he was probably nothing like the battle-hardened veteran depicted in the TV series (by David Morrissey), being more of a capable and reliable member of Rome’s ruling senatorial class. Although Plautius would have had some experience in the army, he was ultimately a career politician (a safe pair hands) and, for military advice, would have relied on the more experienced legionary officers under his command.

    Are Queen Antedia and Kerra, who both appear in Britannia, real? Who might they be based on?

    Unlike the male-dominated world of Rome, ancient British society was more egalitarian with both men and women wielding political and military power. We know very little about the command structure of British tribal armies opposing Rome during the invasion. Although the names of some leaders survive on Celtic coins and in the pages of Roman writers and historians, there is, unfortunately, no historical evidence (yet) for the female war leaders Antedia and Kerra (played by Zoë Wanamaker and Kelly Reilly in the TV series).

    A king called Antedios certainly seems to have ruled in Norfolk just prior to the invasion whilst the leader of the British resistance was a king called Caratacus (who later became target number one for the Roman government). There were certainly strong and militarily capable women within the British tribal armies – this was a point often used by Roman generals in an attempt to ridicule their foe. Later, in the AD 60s, Queens Cartimandua of the Brigantes (in Yorkshire) and Boudica of the Iceni (in Norfolk) emerge. Both, however, were, at least during the early stages of the invasion, firm supporters of Rome, seeing the obvious benefits of siding with a Mediterranean superpower.

    Did druids exist at this time and what might have been their status or role?

    In popular culture, the druids are usually seen as being integral to Celtic society: part mystical, religious teachers and part hard-line resistance leaders, constantly stirring up trouble for Rome. The problem is that we really have very little evidence for their existence in Britain.

    In Gaul (France), Julius Caesar had noted their presence in the mid-50s BC, but there is only one definite reference to them in the British Isles, on the island of Anglesey where, so the Roman writer Tacitus tells us, they were committing acts of human sacrifice in AD 60. Modern writers and historians tend to view druids as part of an all-encompassing religion (druidism) and, thanks to fictional accounts (most notably in the stories of Asterix the Gaul) suggest that every tribe would have had one: a prehistoric equivalent, perhaps, of a parish priest or holy-man. The trouble is, as plausible as this theory may appear, there is absolutely no evidence for this.

    Miles Russell is a senior lecturer in prehistoric and Roman archaeology at Bournemouth University. Britannia begins on Thursday 18 January at 2am on Sky Atlantic.


    Hail, Britannia

    Welcome Ladies and Gentleman to the Official Thread for the Turtledove Award winning series Hail, Britannia.

    I started posting this series on 30 July 2015 so it seems rather fitting that I launch this Official Thread on the series' 2nd Anniversary, in the year that it won a Turtledove Award for Best Graphic/Artwork. Before I go any further I would like to take the time to thank @CanadianTory, @Turquoise Blue, @MasterSanders, @Danderns, @Nazi Space Spy, and so many others for the help, support and suggestions with my earlier work on the series. I appreciate it so much!

    The premise behind Hail, Britannia is "What if Britain treats the Thirteen Colonies differently?" and "What if the events of the 1760s and 1770s lead to reconciliation rather than revolution?" There isn't any one specific Point of Divergence, instead several alterations throughout the 17th and 18th centuries lead up to the modern day.

    These PODs include but are not limited to: heavier Gaelic, Dutch and French settlement of North America in Nova Scotia, New York and the Great Lakes region Sophia of Hanover living a couple of months longer Frederick, Prince of Wales being exiled to British America in 1737 after deceiving his parents about the birth of his eldest child King George II dying early in 1751 and numerous others.

    The Hail, Britannia series sits halfway between a Type II and Type III scenario on the Sliding Scale of Alternate History Plausibility. I'm trying to follow the PODs through logically, but at the same time exploring scenarios with OTL individuals, and including fictional characters when necessary.

    The main purpose of this thread is to serve as a repository for me to post updates about the Hail, Britannia universe that involve things other than Wikiboxes, such as lists, maps and the occasionally history textbook-style instalment. This will allow me to more easily amend previous posts if the canon changes. However I will still be posting in the Alternate Wikibox thread from time to time.

    Although this thread is primarily for me to post about the universe, I want you all to feel that you are more than welcome to ask questions, make comments and provide suggestions about how I can expand and improve the world of Hail, Britannia, whether in this thread or by sending me a message.

    Ground Rules For Contributing:

    1) This is not meant to be a Shared World-style thread. It is my personal timeline/series, meaning I retain ALL final creative control over the series. However I do, as mentioned previously, welcome suggestions and contributions from all of you in order to help build the world.

    2) Don't post anything (infoboxes, news bulletins, lists etc.) withought running your ideas past me first. There may be elements of established canon that you don't know about (mainy because I haven't posted it yet!)

    3) I reserve the right to amend anything at anytime. If I want to change an aspect of the series that your post touches upon I will politely ask that you change it. I'm not doing this to be difficult.

    4) Please don't post anything deliberately inflammatory or offensive.

    5) Any Wikipedia Infoboxes not tagged with a Threadmark are not canon. I would like it if any Wikipedia Infobox posts not done by myself include an in-universe description just like I have been doing on previous threads. No Description = Not Canon.​

    Now let us begin with the traditional renditions of the Royal and Imperial Anthems of the United Kingdom and Empire of Great Britannia:

    Hail Britannia, God bless thee!
    Hail, her people, strong and free,
    Who fight and bleed in freedom’s cause,
    Who fight and bleed in freedom’s cause,
    And when the storm of war has gone
    Enjoy the peace your valour won.

    Hail Britannia, we expound!
    Hail, her matchless beauty crowned!
    March on Britannia, in the joyful throng,
    Defend the right and right the wrong,
    And let our Empire always be
    Loyal, united, and forever free.

    God save our gracious Queen!
    Long live our noble Queen!
    God save the Queen!
    Send her victorious,
    Happy and glorious,
    Long to reign over us:
    God save the Queen!

    LeinadB93

    And here is the most up-to-date world map:

    LeinadB93

    And reposting the most recent update from the Alternate Wikipedia Infobox thread:

    Donald John Trump, Lord Trump Kt (born 14 June 1946) is a British American businessman, television personality and politician who has served as a member of the House of Peers of Columbia since 1998 and as a member of the Imperial Council of Lords since 2009.

    Trump was born in the New York borough of Queens and went on to earn an economics degree from the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. Since 1971 he has managed The Trump Organisation, the real estate development firm founded by his paternal grandmother, with his business career focusing on building or renovating office towers, hotels, casinos, and golf courses. He started several side ventures and branded various products with his name. He also produced and hosted The Apprentice television series for 7 years, and as of 2017 he is one of the richest people in the world.

    Trump has been a long time supporter of conservative parties, although prior to 1987 he was a registered member of the liberal conservative Renew New York party. He received a Knighthood in the resignation honours list of First Minister Alexander Haig, 1st Earl Haig in 1989. Having long expressed interest in taking on a more political role, Trump was granted a Life Peerage as Baron Trump, of Queens in the City of New York and Long Island in the Commonwealth of Columbia and appointed to the House of Peers of Columbia by Arlen Specter in 1998.

    Switching to the United Heritage Party following the Conservatives' defeat in the 2007 federal election, Trump's politics have shifted towards the right of the political spectrum. Following the resignation of Mario Cuomo to become Governor of New York and Long Island in 2009, UHP leader Rick Santorum nominated Trump as his replacement in the Imperial Council. In a surprisingly bipartisan vote, Trump was appointed to fill the elected peer vacancy by the 43rd Parliament, believed to be mainly in the hope he would stop embarrasing the UHP in the House of Peers.

    Trump originally sat in the Imperial Council as a member of the British Heritage Party, but repeated clashes with leader Sarah Palin over his desire to be more involved in frontbench opposition ultimately led to Trump walking out of the party in 2012 alongwith Jeff Sessions, Imperial Councillor from Carolina, and the formation of "Team Trump", a right-wing populist, pro-business and anti-free trade party. Team Trump currently holds three seats in the Imperial Council, two in the Columbian House of Peers and one in the Carolinian House of Peers.

    Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton, 1st Viscountess Clinton PC JD (born 26 October 1947) a British politician and attorney from the Ohio Country who served as the 18th Deputy Prime Minister from 2010 to 2016, the 34th Leader of the Opposition from 2006 to 2010, the leader of the Alliance of Imperial Liberals and Reformists from 2006 to 2016, and as the 15th Health Secretary from 1999 to 2001.

    Born in Chicago and raised in the suburb of Park Ridge, Clinton graduated from Wellesley College in 1969 and earned a J.D. from Yale Law School in 1973. After serving as a parliamentary legal counsel, she moved to Louisiana and married Bill Clinton in 1975. Following her husband's election as First Minister of Louisiana in 1988, Clinton used her ceremonial position to advocate for gender equality and healthcare reform, positioning herself as a candidate for public office in her own right. In the 1993 imperial election both Bill and Hillary Clinton were elected to the Imperial Parliament, becoming the first husband and wife to serve in the Imperial House at the same time.

    Both the Clintons were rising stars in the Alliance of Imperial Liberals and Reformists, with Bill having been appointed to the cabinet as the Justice Secretary in 1993, and being elected Deputy Leader in 1995. However, on 28 July 1998 Bill Clinton was assassinated in New Orleans, Acadiana by the Cajun Republican Army, making him the most senior figure to be killed during the Louisiana Troubles, and his death led to the Good Friday Agreement of 1999. After a brief period away from public life to grieve with her daughter, Clinton was appointed Health Secretary by Richard Gephardt in 1999 and served until the Liberal defeat at the 2001 election.

    In opposition Clinton became a household name for her fiery clashes with first Peter Reith and then Sir Richard Lugar over foreign policy. She succeeded Tom Daschle as Leader of the Alliance of Imperial Liberals and Reformists at the 2006 leadership election, winning 20 of the national contests and an outright majority of delegates at the convention. As Leader of the Opposition she took a more concilliatory approach to the Hayes Government, frequently reaching across the aisle to seek bipartisan support for education and healthcare reform, as well as securing a gradual end to the Second Gulf War.

    Despite opinion polls predicting a Liberal plurality in the July 2010 election, a surge in support for the Social Democrats as well as a lacklustre and overconfident Liberal campaign, resulted in a hung parliament, with the Tories still the largest party. Attempts by both main parties to form coalitions failed and a second election was called for November. In a surprise result the SDP became the largest party, with the Liberals a close second. The subsequent SDP-Liberal-Green coalition resulted in Clinton being appointed as Deputy Prime Minister under the Layton and Lim governments.

    Following the Liberals dropping to third place in the 2015 election, Clinton pledged to stay on as leader, however a scandal involving the use of a private email server to handle sensitive government emails and documents led to her announcing her resignation in March 2016. She was suceeded as leader and Deputy Prime Minister by Michael Bennet on 6 June 2016. Clinton would retire from the Imperial Parliament on 13 October 2016, citing a desire to spend more time with her family, and in the 2017 New Years Honours list was granted an hereditary peerage as Viscountess Clinton, of the Little Rock in the State of South Arkansaw in the Union of Louisiana.

    Gary Earl Johnson (born January 1, 1953) is a British-born Texan businessman and politician who has served as a Texan Senator from New Mexico since 2011, having previously served as the 29th Governor of New Mexico from 1999 to 2007 and a member of the Texas House of Representatives for Albuquerque North—Rio Rancho from 1991 to 1999.

    Born in Minot, Dakota in the British Commonwealth of Missouri, Johnson and his family emigrated to Albuquerque, New Mexico in the Republic of Texas in the 1960s. He graduated from the University of Albuqerque in 1975 and founded his own company focusing on mechanical contracting. Johnson first entered public office when he won the seat of Albuquerque North—Rio Rancho in the House of Representatives as a member of the Christian Democratic Party. He served two terms in the House before running for, and winning, the 1999 New Mexico gubernatorial election. Johnson was re-elected to a second term in 2003.

    Already on the socially liberal and fiscally conservative wing of the party, Johnson eventually broke from the Christian Democrats in 2006 and formed the New Mexico Libertarian Party. Term limited in 2007, he was succeeded by fellow Libertarian Casey Luna. Johnson briefly retired from political life between 2007 and 2011, until he won the 2011 senate election in New Mexico. One of three Libertarians in the Senate, that sit as part of the "Crossbench" group, Johnson is known as a swing vote, voting with the Christian Democrats or the Reform Party on a case-by-case basis. He has announced his intention to seek re-election in 2017.

    Jill Ellen Stein, Baroness Stein of Lexington MBE CNE PC MD (born 14 May 1950) is a British politician, physician and activist from New England who served as the 11th Environment Secretary from 2010 to 2013, and as Leader of the Imperial Greens from 2004 to 2013.

    Born in Chicago and raised in Highland Park, Stein grew up in a Reform Judaism family. Graduating from Harvard Medical School in 1979, Stein went on to practice internal medicine in and around the Boston area for the next 25 years. Turning to environmental activisim in the late 1990s, Stein was a federal candidate in New England several times before winning a list seat in the Imperial Parliament at the 2001 election.

    Although Stein quickly became a prominent member of the Green frontbench team, she was still considered an outsider at the 2004 leadership election to replace Ralph Nader. In a tight race, Stein narrowly edged out Christine Milne of Australia for the party leadership. Stein would lead the party to an increase in seats at the 2008 and 2010 elections. Following the 2010 election and the formation of the SDP-Liberal-Green coalition, Stein was appointed as the 11th Environment Secretary and served throughout the Layton and Lim governments.

    Stein resigned from the party leadership in 2013, citing a need for "new blood" and was succeeded by Elizabeth May, the first Green leader to not be a list MIP. Returning to the backbenches, Stein continued to advocate for environmental issues and healthcare reform, and was re-elected at the 2015 election, although she failed to win in the Boston Centre constituency. Following the mandatory retirement of Lowell Weicker Jr. from the Imperial Council at the age of 85, Stein was nominated as his replacement by First Minister Petar MacÀidh and granted a life peerage as Baroness Stein of Lexington, in the Province of Massachusetts in the Commonwealth of New England.

    David Evan McMullin MBA (born 2 April 1976) is an Anglo-Californian politician and intelligence officer from Wasatch who has served as the Deputy Minister for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs since 2016, and as a member of the Cortes Generales since the 2013 general election. A member of the National Liberal Party (PNL), McMullin previously served as an intelligence officer in the Californian Intelligence Agency (CIA) and as an adviser to the Chamber Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs Committee.

    McMullin was placed on the PNL party list at the 2013 election and was elected to the Chamber of Delegates, serving in the backbenches as a member of the Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs Committee. Following the resignation of John Campbell, McMullin was appointed as Deputy Minister under Leiticia Carazo. A rising star in the moderate wing of the party, McMullin is tipped as a future leader in the 2020s.


    Inspiration

    The Holy Britannian Empire is clearly inspired by the British Empire of the 15th-20th centuries. This can be seen through the world-spanning size of the Empire, its territorial holdings (such as the Falkland Islands, North America, and New Zealand), its system of government (with an aristocracy, House of Lords and a Prime Minister), and its namesakes, e.g., Ashford, Darlton, Guilford, Warrick, Glasgow, Colchester, Bartley. Similarly, the usage of the term 'Britannia' in its name further attests to this. It is the Latin name for the island of Great Britain, which was once the administrative and economic center of the British Empire. The term is also often associated with patriotic admiration of British imperial might and the so-called Pax Britannica or 'British Peace'. This was a century-long period where the British Empire essentially dominated the world and functioned as the 'global policeman', actively influencing, fighting and/or exploiting most of the rest of the world, much like the Holy Britannian Empire.

    It also has some similarities with the Holy Roman Empire (962-1806). Despite its name, the Holy Roman Empire only briefly controlled Rome, and was located in Germany. Similar to how the Holy Britannian Empire is located in America and doesn't control Great Britain (or any of the British isles). A similar comparison could also be made with the eastern portion of the Wikipedia:Byzantine Empire:Roman 'Byzantine' Empire (330-1453) which continued to refer to itself and its citizens as the 'Roman Empire' and 'Romans' respectively for some seven hundred years after it had definitively lost control of Rome in 756 to the Franks and almost a thousand years after it had lost most of the Italian Peninsula to the Lombards in the 6th century.

    Likewise, the history of the Holy Britannian Empire bears similarities to that of the Portuguese Empire and its later American successor, the Empire of Brazil . In 1808, facing an impending invasion of their homeland by Napoleonic forces, the Braganza dynasty of Portugal transferred their court to their American territory in Brazil, making Rio de Janeiro the new seat of the empire and raising the status of Brazil from a colony to a constituent kingdom of the newly-formed United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves . In 1822, faced with the prospect of reverting to a colonial relationship following the transfer of the imperial capital back to Lisbon in Europe, the Braganza monarchy in Brazil declared their independence from Portugal. This is comparable to the Holy Britannian Empire evolving from the British Empire after transferring the seat of the empire to its North American colonial holdings following a Napoleonic invasion around the same time frame.

    Holy Britannian Empire is also clearly inspired by Oceania, a totalitarian dystopian regime of British roots, which controls more or less the same territories, namely the whole of the American continent, New Zealand, New Caledonia and Southern Africa (conquered by Britannia in Season 2 as part of Prince Schneizel's conquests). In George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four novel, Oceania is in a perpetual war situation with Eurasia and Easta​​​​​​sia, as Britannia is with Europia United and the Chinese Federation. There are, however, some important differences between Oceania and Britannia : Oceania is a one-party socialist state, while Britannia is an absolute monarchy based on sometimes Darwinian sometimes Nietzschean core principles. Oceania controls the British Isles, which is its homeland, which is obviously not the case of Britannia. Conversely, Britannia controls Japan, which's under Eastasian domination in 1984. Finally, the level of surveillance of privacy and control/manipulation of society is much more lower in the Britannian Empire, even after the accession of Lelouch to the throne, who establishes a regime of terror (killing all those who oppose him, as well as their entire families).

    Although it is unclear if the Code Geass creators are aware of it, the Holy Britannian Empire also has many strong parallels with the Domination of the Draka alternate history novels by S. M. Stirling. Like Britannia, the Draka are a sort of "anti-America" formed by pro-British Tories who opposed the American Revolution, who lost and were exiled from their homeland, but then utterly embraced Social Darwinism to get revenge on and later try to enslave the rest of humanity. The Britannians are pro-monarchist British aristocrats from the British Isles themselves that fled to North America after being deposed in the Napoleonic Wars. In contrast, the Draka are pro-British Tories who, instead of fleeing to Canada after losing the American Revolution, fled to the Cape Colony in South Africa (the point of divergence in their timeline is that Britain had already conquered it from the Dutch by that time). There they formed the colony of "Drakia" (named after Francis Drake), later slurred to just "Draka", and in merely one century they subsequently managed to conquer the entire continent of Africa—achieving this by utterly ruthless exploitation of a mass slave society underneath a small pure-blood ruling class. Stirling's main novels focus on how the Draka proceed to conquer most of Eurasia during alternate World Wars.


    Watch the video: History of Britain in 20 Minutes (July 2022).


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