Biography of Dean Rusk - History

Biography of Dean Rusk - History

Dean Rusk


Secretary of State

Dean Rusk was born in Cherokee County Georgia in 1909. He was a Rhodes Schola at Oxford and became an Associate Professor of government at Mills College, in Oakland California.
Rusk served in the US Army from 1940- 1946. After which he joined the State Department under the mentorship of George C. Marshall. In 1950, Rusk was named Assistant Secretary of State for Far Eastern affairs. Under Secretary Dean Acheson, Rusk was involved in policy-making during the Korean War.

Leaving the State Department in 1952 to become the head of the Rockefeller Foundation, Rusk returned to public service when President Kennedy appointed him Secretary of State in 1961. He continued as Secretary of State under President Johnson, and supported international economic cooperation and military opposition to Communism.

Along with Robert McNamara, Rusk became a major apologist for the Johnson Administration's escalation of American involvement in the Vietnam War. In 1970, Rusk became a professor of international law at the University of Georgia.


As I Saw It


Zodiac Sign: Dean Rusk was a Aquarius. People of this zodiac sign like to have fun with friends, help others, fight for causes, are a good listener and dislike broken promises, being bored, and people who disagree with them. The strengths of this sign are being independent, original, while the weaknesses can be running from emotional expression, temperamental and uncompromising. The greatest overall compatibility with Aquarius is Leo and Sagittarius.

Chinese Zodiac: Dean Rusk was born in the Year of the Ox. People born under this sign are honest, observant and hardworking. They seldom rely on other people in daily life, which can make them impatient when dealing with others.

50 Years Ago This Week: 'Individuals Marry, Not Races'

Milestone moments do not a year make. Often, it&rsquos the smaller news stories that add up, gradually, to big history. With that in mind, in 2017 TIME History will revisit the entire year of 1967, week by week, as it was reported in the pages of TIME. Catch up on last week&rsquos installment here.

Despite the best efforts of the bride and groom and their families, a wedding that all involved had tried to keep private was this week’s cover story &mdash and it was national news for good reason.

The two parties in question were Margaret Elizabeth “Peggy” Rusk and Guy Gibson Smith. She was the one daughter of U.S. Secretary of State Dean Rusk, and a studious 18-year-old enrolled at Stanford. He was a 22-year-old NASA employee whom she had met when they were both horse-loving Washington teenagers. More to the point, he was black, and she was not.

As TIME noted, that fact meant that their wedding &mdash coming very shortly after the Supreme Court struck down laws that banned such unions &mdash was “social history rather than society-page fare.” And, even more than the wedding itself, the story explained, the reaction (or lack thereof) was an important indicator of the national mood:

As recently as 1948, California law would have made the union a criminal offense in the state. Until last June, when the U.S. Supreme Court killed Virginia’s miscegenation law, 16 states still banned interracial marriage. More to the point, and more poignant, in a year when black-white animosity has reached a violent crescendo in the land, two young people and their parents showed that separateness is far from the sum total of race relations in the U.S.&mdashthat to the marriage of true minds, color should be no impediment. Indrawn as usual, Rusk pronounced himself “very pleased.” Clarence Smith, Guy’s father, said simply: “Two people in love.”

It was not quite that simple. Guy, 22, and Peggy, 18, took on more than the double risk of a young and mixed marriage when they exchanged rings and vows. The wedding bells rang also for Dean Rusk. Protocol makes the Secretary of State No. 1 in the President’s Cabinet, and Lyndon Johnson has made him No. 1 in presidential esteem and trust. Anything that affects Rusk personally also affects the Administration politically. Thus there was credibility to the speculation that Rusk, when informing Johnson of the wedding, offered to resign if the White House considered that necessary.

There was never any prospect that Johnson would accept such an offer, because of his great reliance on Rusk, because Rusk’s resignation over his daughter’s choice of a husband would be a major political disaster for the Administration, and because there is little likelihood that the President would find the marriage embarrassing. (In any event, as of this week Rusk has outlasted all but six of his predecessors.) But the mere fact that the hint of resignation was reported, and allowed to go undenied by both Rusk and the White House, underscored the kind of pressure that the new Mr. and Mrs. Smith knowingly accepted.

Though the State Department received a reported couple of hundred nasty letters, and many Rusk family members did not attend the wedding, generally it was acknowledged that the marriage was far less controversial than it would have been just a few years earlier. In fact, one of the more notable reactions came from liberals who denounced Rusk’s Vietnam policies and now found themselves having to stand up for him.

For many people, the news was best summed up by Martin Luther King Jr.’s take on the wedding: “Individuals marry, not races.”

Dean Rusk

Rusk was born in Cherokee County, Georgia, on February 9, 1909. Rusk earned an A.B. in political science from Davidson College in 1931 prior to entering St. John&rsquos College, Oxford University, on a Rhodes Scholarship. At St. John&rsquos, Rusk completed B.S. and M.A. degrees. Upon returning to the United States in 1934, he accepted a position as an associate professor at Mills College in Oakland, California. He later served as Dean of Faculty at Mills while studying law at the University of California-Berkeley.

In 1940, Rusk enlisted in the United States Army, initially as a Captain in the Military Intelligence Branch of the War Department. Rusk rose to become Deputy Chief of Staff in the Operations Division of the War Department&rsquos General Staff. Following his discharge from the Army in 1946, Rusk served briefly as the Assistant Chief of the Division of International Security Affairs in the Department of State&rsquos Office of Special Political Affairs before serving as Special Assistant to Secretary of War Robert Patterson.

Returning to the Department of State, Rusk served in several positions between 1947 and 1951, including Director of the Office of Special Political Affairs, Assistant Secretary of State for International Organization Affairs, Deputy Under Secretary of State, and Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs.

Leaving government service, Rusk headed the Rockefeller Foundation from 1952 to 1961. Rusk returned to the Department of State in January 1961 as President John F. Kennedy&rsquos Secretary of State.

Influence on American Diplomacy

Rusk asserted that the Secretary of State served at the pleasure of the President. As such, the Secretary&rsquos role reflected that of an advisor who would preside over policy debates, offer informed views, and endorse the President&rsquos decisions.

Rusk subverted his own misgivings about the failed 1961 Cuban Bay of Pigs invasion and closed ranks around Kennedy. From his own perspective, Rusk perceived the world of the 1960s as caught up in &ldquorevolutionary changes&rdquo&mdashnotably the establishment of new nations&mdashand believed that U.S. foreign policy should provide emerging nations with technical and humanitarian assistance to speed these nations along the path toward modernity and democracy.

Rusk also advocated a &ldquodignified diplomacy,&rdquo emphasizing civility and communication between the United States and the Soviet Union. Rusk&rsquos diplomatic orientation and his ability to evaluate and judge competing points of view defused tensions during the October 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis and contributed toward the successful negotiation of the Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty in August 1963.

Although he favored a gradualist approach to U.S. involvement in Vietnam&mdashin order to maintain the U.S. obligation to Vietnam under SEATO&mdashhis support of President Lyndon Johnson&rsquos war policy exposed him to public criticism.

Rusk ended his tenure as Secretary on January 20, 1969. He was appointed the Samuel H. Sibley Professor of International Law at the University of Georgia (1970&ndash1984), established the Dean Rusk Center for International and Comparative Law, and completed a memoir, with the assistance of his son Richard Rusk, entitled As I Saw It. Rusk died on December 20, 1994.

Career prior to 1961 [ edit | edit source ]

During World War II he joined the infantry as a reserve captain, and served as a staff officer in the China Burma India Theater. At war's end he was a colonel, decorated with the Legion of Merit with Oak Leaf Cluster. Β]

He returned to America to work briefly for the War Department in Washington. He joined the Department of State in February 1945, and worked for the office of United Nations Affairs. In the same year, he suggested splitting Korea into spheres of U.S. and of Soviet influence at the 38th parallel north. He was made Deputy Under Secretary of State in 1949. He was made Assistant Secretary of State for Far Eastern Affairs in 1950 and played an influential part in the US decision to become involved in the Korean War, and also in Japan's postwar compensation for victorious countries, such as the Rusk documents. However he was a cautious diplomat and always sought international support.

Rusk was a Rockefeller Foundation trustee from 1950 to 1961. In 1952 he succeeded Chester L. Barnard as president of the Foundation. Β]

Late Secretary of State Dean Rusk's Children On Their Father's Legacy

On May 27, GPB premiered a documentary about Dean Rusk. The Georgia native served as secretary of state and for President John F. Kennedy and President Lyndon B. Johnson. Two of Rusk’s three children-- Peggy Rusk- Smith and Rich Rusk-- joined GPB All Things Considered host Ellen Reinhardt for a conversation about their father’s legacy.

Here is the transcript below:

Ellen Reinhardt ( Host, All Things Considered): Thank you for being here. How would you describe your father?

Peggy Rusk-Smith: My father was brilliant and very dedicated to the country.

Ellen Reinhardt: And Rich, what would you say?

Rich Rusk: He really loved this country, in part, I supposed because he came off a 40-acre farm in Cherokee County, Georgia. And never forgot it. He was astonished that a boy from that background could go on and be Secretary of State.

Peggy Rusk-Smith: Both my father and my mother were very good at not pressuring us or pushing us in any particular direction.

Ellen Reinhardt: So Peggy, you got married when you were 18. And you married a wonderful man named Guy Smith, who is African-American. And you did that in 1967, the same year that the U.S. Supreme Court overturned the ban on interracial marriage.

Peggy Rusk-Smith: He was in Georgetown. He has just graduated from Georgetown. He was in ROTC, so we was scheduled to go on active duty soon. And we wanted to be married before he did.

Ellen Reinhardt: But then your wedding photo is on the cover of TIME magazine.

Peggy Rusk-Smith: (laughter) That was a big shock. We weren’t trying to make any kind of statement. It has really nothing to do with our relationship. The fact that everyone else was making a big deal about it was their issue.

Ellen Reinhardt: Your father was colorblind. But at the same time, he offered to step down as Secretary of State because he was worried that some of the public reaction to your marriage was going to impact President Johnson. Johnson, of course, refused his resignation. Did you know about that at the time?

Peggy Rusk-Smith: He gave me lots of reasons why he thought it would be not a good idea for us to get married. One was my age. One was the fact that I hadn’t finished school. One was the fact that they guy was probably going off to Vietnam. I mean, he definitely believed in equality for all and integration. And he taught me that, obviously. But, he never brought up race as a reason not to marry, although he did point out that he was afraid that a lot of the senators and congressmen who were in powerful positions -- might somehow influence their vote on supporting President Johnson’s policies.

Rich Rusk: They had a terrific marriage. Guy died two years ago. He went from that marriage to fly a Huey Helicopter gunship in Vietnam.

Ellen Reinhardt: When you were in Cornell, you opposed that war. What was that like for you? You felt strongly about that war and your father was the voice of that war for the Johnson administration.

Rich Rusk: I became so obsessed with all the death and the destruction. All ended with me in a nervous breakdown at Cornell in January 1970.

Ellen Reinhardt: And what about your relationship with your father at that time? I mean, he was hesitant to get into that war, but then once he was, he was committed to it.

Rich Rusk: Yeah, deeply opposed the war in Vietnam. And he heard about it over the dinner table of course. And I never got involved publically with the anti-war movement because I didn’t want to embarrass him. But I’d bring home classmates from Cornell University. Everyone I knew at Cornell was against the war and they would be coming down to Washington for some massive, anti-war rally and oftentimes they would stay right at our house. And my dad would see them coming down the sidewalk and he’d say ‘Well fellas, you’re welcome to stay here but you park your signs in the umbrella rack at the front door.

I never heard him say that that war was a mistake. But I think he died believing that we had tried to do the right thing there.

Ellen Reinhardt( Host, All Things Considered): Thank you both for talking with me. I’ve been talking with Peggy Rusk-Smith and Rich Rusk. Thank you both for being here.

GPB profiles Georgian Dean Rusk, a central figure in Cold War history May 27

Georgia native Dean Rusk's son called him the "Forrest Gump" of history from the mid-1940s until the late 1960s because he was involved in so many important junctures of history.

But Rusk was no simpleton. He was a Rhodes Scholar who played major role in creating the dividing line between North and South Korea, resolving the Cuban Missile Crisis, lobbying for the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and building up U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War. He was Secretary of State for both John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson.

Georgia Public Broadcasting highlights Rusk’s achievements in a 30-minute profile airing Tuesday, May 27, at 8 p.m. as part of a 13-part “Georgia Greats” series.

"We're packing a lot in a short period of time," said executive producer Pamela Roberts, who interviewed two of Rusk's children, civil rights legend Andrew Young and former CNN president Tom Johnson, who worked with Rusk during the LBJ administration.

Roberts was also able to use hundreds of hours of audio Rusk taped while compiling his memoir. “No secretary of state has ever been interviewed as much as Dean Rusk,” she said.

Dean's daughter Peggy Rusk Smith in 1967 married a black man Guy Smith, a highly controversial move that was illegal in many states at the time. Rusk offered to resign his post as secretary of state. Johnson declined.

“He worried it just wouldn’t succeed and we were setting ourselves up for heartbreak and maybe even danger,” Smith said in the documentary in her first interview ever about the subject. They stayed married 44 years until Guy's death in 2012.

When it came to the Vietnam War, “he went through an agony of indecision in 1964,” Rusk's son Rich said. Rusk ultimately supported bringing in more troops and the conflict escalated. He was vilified by anti-Vietnam War protesters.

“He thought he was doing the right thing,” said Rich, who moved to Alaska for 14 years to get away from his father but ultimately reconciled with him. Rusk managed his stress by chain smoking and drinking scotch. In retrospect, Rusk expressed regret over that war, saying he underestimated both the impatience of Americans as casualties grew and the tenacity of the North Vietnamese.

After Rusk left government in 1969, he taught international law at the University of Georgia. He passed in 1994 at age 85.

Dean Rusk

Rusk toimi uransa alussa muun muassa yliopistonopettajana, kunnes tuli 1946 ulkoministeriöön. [1] Hänet nimitettiin vuonna 1950 apulaisulkoministeriksi, ja hän vaikutti merkittävästi Yhdysvaltojen toimintaan Korean sodassa. Vuonna 1952 hän siirtyi ulkoministeriöstä Rockefeller-säätiön palvelukseen toimien sen johtajana vuosina 1952–1960. [1]

Presidentti John F. Kennedy nimitti Ruskin vuonna 1961 ulkoministerikseen. [1] Hän oli vuonna 1962 mukana neuvottelemassa rauhanomaista ratkaisua Kuuban ohjuskriisiin. [2]

Rusk kannatti sotilaallisia toimia kommunismin leviämisen ehkäisemiseksi, ja hänestä tuli yhdessä puolustusministeri Robert McNamaran kanssa yksi Vietnamin sodan merkittävimmistä tukijoista. [2] Hänen päättäväinen kommunismin vastainen linjansa ilmeni myös siten, että hän vastusti Kiinan kommunistihallinnon tunnustamista Kiinan kansan lailliseksi edustajaksi.

Rusk kuului demokraattiseen puolueeseen, joten hän joutui jättämään ulkoministerin tehtävät republikaani Richard Nixonin tullessa presidentiksi vuonna 1969.

Ulkoministeriuransa jälkeen Rusk toimi vuosina 1970–1984 kansainvälisen oikeuden professorina Georgian yliopistossa. Vuonna 1977 yliopistoon perustettiin hänen mukaansa nimetty Dean Rusk Center for International Law and Policy. [3]

Rusk note of 1951

I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your notes of July 19 and August 2, 1951 presenting certain requests for the consideration of the Government of the United States with regard to the draft treaty of peace with Japan.

With respect to request of the Korean Government that Article 2(a) of the draft be revised to provide that Japan "confirms that it renounced on August 9, 1945, all right, title and claim to Korea and the islands which were part of Korea prior to its annexation by Japan, including the islands Quelpart, Port Hamilton, Dagelet, Dokdo and Parangdo," the United States Government regrets that it is unable to concur in this proposed amendment. The United States Government does not feel that the Treaty should adopt the theory that Japan's acceptance of the Potsdam Declaration on August 9, 1945 constituted a formal

​ or final renunciation of sovereignty by Japan over the areas dealt with in the Declaration. As regards the island of Dokdo, otherwise known as Takeshima or Liancourt Rocks, this normally uninhabited rock formation was according to our information never treated as part of Korea and, since about 1905, has been under the jurisdiction of the Oki Islands Branch Office of Shimane Prefecture of Japan. The island does not appear ever before to have been claimed by Korea. It is understood that the Korean Government's request that "Parangdo" be included among the islands named in the treaty as having been renounced by Japan has been withdrawn.

The United States Government agrees that the terms of paragraph (a) of Article 4 of the draft treaty are subject to misunderstanding and accordingly proposes, in order to meet the view of the Korean Government, to insert at the beginning of paragraph (a) the phrase, "Subject to the provisions of paragraph (b) of this Article", and then to add a new paragraph (b) reading as follows:

(b) "Japan recognizes the validity of dispositions of property of Japan and Japanese nationals made by or pursuant to directives of United States Military Government in any of

​ the areas referred to in Articles 2 and 3".

The present paragraph (b) of Article 4 becomes paragraph(c).

The Government of the United States regrets that it is unable to accept the Korean Government's amendment to Article 9 of the draft treaty. In view of the many national interests involved, any attempt to include in the treaty provisions governing fishing in high seas areas would indefinitely delay the treaty's conclusion. It is desired to point out, however, that the so-called MacArthur line will stand until the treaty comes into force, and that Korea, which obtains the benefits of Article 9, will have the opportunity of negotiating a fishing agreement with Japan prior to that date.

With respect to the Korean Government's desire to obtain the benefits of Article 15(a) of the treaty, there would seem to be no necessity to oblige Japan to return the property of persons in Japan of Korean origin since such property was not sequestered or otherwise interfered with by the Japanese Government during the war. In view of the fact that such persons had the status of

​ Japanese nationals it would not seem appropriate that they obtain compensation for damage to their property as a result of the war.

Watch the video: Dean Rusk, part 4 (December 2021).