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Konstantin Fedin

Konstantin Fedin

Konstantin Fedin was born in Saratov, Russia on 12th February, 1892. He joined the Russian Army during the First World War and after being captured he was imprisoned in Germany.

In 1918 Fedin was released and after arriving back in Russia joined the Red Army and fought during the Civil War. His first story, The Orchard, was published in 1920.

In 1922 Fedin helped form the literary group, the Serapion Brothers. Inspired by the work of Yevgeni Zamyatin, the group took their name from the story by E. T. Hoffmann, the Serapion Brothers, about an individualist who vows to devote himself to a free, imaginative and non-conformist art. Other members included Nickolai Tikhonov, Mikhail Zoshchenko, Victor Shklovsky, Vsevolod Ivanov and Mikhail Slonimski. Russia's most important writer of the period, Maxim Gorky, also sympathized with the group's views.

Fedin's controversial novel, Cities and Years, tells the story of an intellectual who originally welcomes the October Revolution but later becomes disillusioned and is eventually murdered by a German Bolshevik. The novel upset supporters of the Soviet government and Fedin was accused of being sympathetic to the book's hero.

The short story, Transvaal (1928) about the kulaks and the novel The Brothers (1928), that once again deals with the problems of an intellectual adapting to Communist society, were unpopular with pro-Bolshevik critics.

After the Second World War Fedin's began to conform to the requirements of Socialist Realism. His novels, First Joys (1946) and An Unusual Summer (1948), were highly praised in both the Soviet Union and the rest of Europe.

In 1959 Fedin was elected President of the Soviet Writers' Union. A post he held until 1971 when he was elected chairman of the executive board.

Konstantin Fedin died in Moscow on 15th July, 1977.


ENCYLOPEDIA OF SOVIET WRITERS

Rather then go to work in his father's store, Fedin continued his studies at the Commercial Academy in Kozlov. It was here that he developed a love of literature and started writing. His first story, written in 1910, was Sluchai c Vasiliem Porfirevich ("Incident with Vasili Porfirevich"), an imitation of Gogol's Overcoat.

In 1911, he went on to study economics at the Moscow Commercial Institute. He continued writing and in 1913 his first published work, Melochi ("Trifles") appeared in the Petersburg journal New Satirycon. Upon seeing his words in print for the first time, Fedin recalls being so happy that he skipped and sang.

In the spring of 1914 he went to Nuremburg to study German. At the outbreak of World War I, he tried to high-tail it back to Russia, but he seized in Dresdan. He and other Russians were held by the Germans as civilian hostages until the conclusion of the Brest Treaty. So, in the autumn of 1918 Fedin returned to Moscow, where he worked for a while in the People's Commisariate of Education.

In 1919, Fedin moved to the town of Syzran, where he worked as editor and writer for the newspaper Syzran Communar. He didn't stay there for long, however. In the autumn of 1919 he was mobilized and sent to the Petrograd front during Yudenich's attack. He was assigned first to a calvary division, then transfered to serve as assistant editor of the paper Fighting Pravda . From 1921 to 1924, he served as editor of the magazine Books and Revolution. During this time, he continued writing articles and stories and was closely associated with the Serapion Brothers, a literary goup dedicated to the inividual freedom of the creative act. Later Soviet critics were hostile to the Serapion Brothers, and Fedin tried to distance himself from the group, saying he saw the need to break with them thanks to the influence of Maksim Gorky. Fedin wrote:

In assessing the work of Fedin at the time, Maksim Gorky wrote:

Fedin's first collection, Pustyr ("Wasteland") appeared in 1923. It included the story Sad (Orchard), the tale of an old gardener who watches sadly as the orchard he cared for and the manor house of the old owners are turned over to a Soviet orphanage and fall into neglect. In the end, the gardener sets the house and orchard on fire. This work won Fedin the first prize from the House of Writers.

In 1924, Fedin finished his masterful novel Goroda i Gody ("Cities and Years"), one of the first Soviet novels, portraying the path of the intelligentisa during the Revolution and Civil War. It was also a work of stylistic and structural novelties. In the novel, a spineless Russian intellectual, Andrei Startsov, is interred in Germany at the start of World War I. He falls in love with a German girl, Mari, who helps him in an escape attempt. He is perceptive in his observations of the cruelty and contradictions of German militarism, and back in Russia after the war, he struggles to find his place in Revolutionary society. He wants to join the new exciting world, but is frozen by his intellectual detachment and proves unable to make any contribution, to take any action. He was, in short:

Forgetting his promises to send for Mari, Andrei drifts into another affair and gets another girl pregnant. He also helps a personal acquaintance, now a counterrevolutionary, escape Soviet justice. He has a chance to turn in this enemy of the people, but fearing that he himself would have a man's blood--even a guilty man's blood--on his hand, he fails to take action. For this betrayal of the Soviet cause, his best friend kills Andrei.

Fedin called Cities and Years an "emotional sequence" and told it with a non-sequential narrative line, starting with the end. If arranged in the proper time sequence, the order of chapters would be: 4, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 2, 9, and 1. The novel is also filled with frequent lyrical digressions.

In the 1930s, the German translation of Cities and Years had the honor of being among those books burned on Nazi bonfires.

In 1926, Fedin retired to a village in the Smolensk region. There he wrote Transvaal, the story of a cruel Estonian of Boer extraction who comes to wield almost dicatorial power over the peasants of his village. Some critics disliked the story, seeing in it a defense of kulaks.

Fedin's next novel, Bratya ("Brothers"), appeared in 1928. This novel--again employing temporal displacements--is the story of musician and composer who attempts to claim an expemption from Revolutionary service in pursuit of his individual artistic expression. He argues with his brother, a Bolshevik who goes off to die in battle. In the end, the musician takes up his brother's cause and believes, therefore, that he has overcome the contradiction between art and Revolutionary activity. However, his view of art as essentially tragic, born in solitude, remains unchanged.

In that same year, Fedin traveled through Norway, Holland, Denmark, and Germany. Then, in 1931, he fell ill with pulmonary tuberculosis and went to Switzerland for treatment. He then spent the years 1933 and 1934 in Italy and France. These trips provided material for his next two novels, Pokhishcheniye Evropy ("The Rape of Europe") (1934) and Sanatori Arktur ("The Arktur Sanitorium") (1940). In The Rape of Europe , members of a bourgeois Dutch family bicker among themselves as they try to hold onto a timber concession in the Soviet Union. In the end, the Soviet Union is strong enough to kick them out, reducing them to the status of timber brokers. The tale is told through the eyes of a Communist journalist, who abscounds with the wife of one of the Dutchmen. The Arktur Sanitorium depicts patients in a Swiss health sanitorium.

In 1934, Fedin was elected to the board of the Writer's Union. During World War II, he worked as a war correspondent, but also found time to produce the play Ispytaniye Chuvstv ("Test of Feelings") (1942). This play depicts a heroine, Aglaia, involved with the anti-German resistance.

Fedin turned his pen to a book of literary reminiscences, Gorky Sredi Nas (Gorky Among Us), the first volume of which was published in 1943. It was of great literary interest and highly praised. The second volume, released in 1944, however, did not fare so well. Containg portraits of writers such as Sologub, Remizov, Volynsky, and others, the work was criticized for being "objective" and "dispassionate", of having ignored the historical-political background. Fedin was accused of a "revaluation of values". Marietta Shaginyan said he showed a "soft benevolence" and engaged in a "distortion of the past". Tikhonov faulted Fedin for misinterpreting Gorky's position. As a result, this volume was withdrawn from circulation.

Fedin returned to novels and undertook a triology consisting of Perviye Radosti ("First Joys") (1946), Neobyknovennoye Leto ("No Ordinary Summer") (1948), and Koster ("The Bonfire") (1961), offering a chronicle of Russian life between 1910 and 1941. The first of these, First Joys, is a broad, realistic novel set in Saratov on the Volga on the eve of World War I. It shows the actions of a young, budding revolutionary (Izvekov) and an older revolutionary factory worker (Ragozin), as well as various other strata of pre-revolutionary Russia. No Ordinary Summer begins in 1919 when a Russian soldier escapes from a German prisoner of war camp and makes it back to Russia, which is caught up in the Civil War. Also returning are Izvekov and Ragozin, who meet up with old friends and enemies. As Aleksei Tolstoy did in his novel Bread, here Fedin alters history somewhat to make Stalin, not Trotsky, the hero of the Battle of Tsaritsyn. The novel also features a nonpolitical writer trying to maintain his artistic freedom and express his sympathies for the suffering, no matter what side they are on. And in the third book of the trilogy, The Bonfire, a positive hero rushes to the defense of the motherland when the Nazis invade Russia.

In commenting on The Bonfire, Fedin noted that, throughout his career, he strove to not only to create characters who were, in their own way, heroes of their time, but also to protray the character of that time itself. He wrote:

Elsewhere, he summed up the duty of a writer:

Fedin produced some portraits of his friends and contemporaries in Pisatel, Iskusstvo, Vremya ("Writer, Art, Time") (1957). He received two Stalin Prizes, in 1948 and in 1950. He served as head of the Soviet Writers Union from 1959 to 1971 and, in this capacity, denied publication to Solzhenitsyn's Cancer Ward in 1968. From 1971 until 1977 Fedin worked on the editorial board of Novy Mir. He was married and had one daughter.


Biography [ edit | edit source ]

Born in Saratov of humble origins, Fedin studied in Moscow and Germany and was interned there during World War I. Ώ] After his release he worked as an interpreter in the first Soviet embassy in Berlin. ΐ] On returning to Russia he joined the Bolsheviks and served in the Red Army after leaving the Party in 1921 he joined the literary group called the Serapion Brothers, who supported the Revolution but wanted freedom for literature and the arts.

His first story, "The Orchard," was published in 1922, as was his play Bakunin v Drezdene (Bakunin in Dresden). His first two novels are his most important Goroda i gody (1924 tr. as Cities and Years, 1962, "one of the first major novels in Soviet literature" Α] ) and Bratya (Brothers, 1928) both deal with the problems of intellectuals at the time of the October Revolution, and include "impressions of the German bourgeois world" based on his wartime imprisonment. Β] His later novels include Pokhishchenie Evropy (The rape of Europe, 1935), Sanatorii Arktur (The Arktur sanatorium, 1939), and the historical trilogy, Pervye radosti (First joys, 1945), Neobyknovennoe leto (An unusual summer, 1948), and Kostyor (The Fire, 1961–67). He also wrote a memoir Gorky sredi nas (Gorky among us, 1943). Edward J. Brown sums him up as follows: "Fedin, while he is probably not a great writer, did possess in a high degree the talent for communicating the atmosphere of a particular time and place. His best writing is reminiscent re-creation of his own experiences, and his memory is able to select and retain sensuous elements of long-past scenes which render their telling a rich experience." Γ]

From 1959 until his death he served as chair of the Union of Soviet Writers.


MS Konstantin Fedin Review

Review of MS Konstantin Fedin

MS Konstantin Fedin cruise ship ("теплоход Константин Федин" круизный корабль) is a traditional Russian river passenger ship built for the USSR (Soviet Union) in GDR (Eastern Germany). The boat is currently owned and operated by the Russian shipping company VODOHOD ("Водоход"). MS Fedin cruises on Volga River, between St Petersburg and Moscow.

The shipowner Vodohod is Russia's largest river cruise shipping operator. The company was established in 2004 as Volga Shipping Company. After the merger with Volga Flot Tour, Vodohod now operates over 50 cruise ships along the rivers Don, Volga, Kama, Moscow, Volga&ndashDon Canal, Volga-Baltic Waterway and the lakes Ladoga and Onega.

VODOHOD's predecessor - Volga Shipping Company (translated Volzhskoye parokhodstvo / Волжское пароходство) was founded as a Volga steamship transportation company in 1843. In 2011, the company had in operation over 300 passenger and cargo river vessels and carried over 6,7 billion tons of cargoes and over 368,000 passengers on Russia's biggest inland waterways.

MS Fedin was named after the Russian (USSR's) novelist Konstantin Aleksandrovich Fedin (1892-1977). The motor ship was extensively refurbished in 2017.

Cabins

Accommodations include 6 suites, 40 deluxe staterooms, 40 twins, 20 singles and 10 triples. All staterooms are outside (no interior cabins) and with large opening windows (except Lower Deck cabins with round-shaped non-opening portholes). Each cabin as standard amenities offers central air-conditioning (individually controlled heating and ventilation system), private en-suite bathrooms (WC, shower, washbasin, hairdryer), flat TV, radio, refrigerator, wardrobe, safe (in the closet), vanity mirror, writing desk with chair, bedside table, bed lights, 220 V power sockets. Suites additionally have a double bed, sofa, coffee table, armchairs, cabinet, floor lamps. Ceiling height is 2,2 m.

Following multi-million refurbishments, all cabins feature larger than original sizes, new furniture and flooring, deluxe bedding, modern lighting.

  • Suites (location Middle Deck forward) are 2-room cabins with separate living room-bedroom and 4x large windows (opening). Suites feature L-shaped sofa, low table, bedroom with King-size double bed, mirrored vanity table with chair, 2 wardrobes. Suites can accommodate up to 3 passengers via folding bed.
  • Junior Suites (location Middle Deck aft) are large cabins with living-sleeping areas, 3x large windows (opening), L-shaped sofa, low table, King-size double bed (plus folding bed), mirrored vanity table with chair, wardrobe.
  • Deluxe Cabins (location Main Deck and Middle Deck / Boat Deck) are double rooms with 1x large window (opening).
  • Single Cabins (location Middle Deck / Boat Deck) are 1-bed staterooms with 1x large window (opening).
  • Twin / Double Cabins (location Middle Deck / Boat Deck) are 2-bed staterooms with 1x large window (opening).
  • Triple Cabins (location Lower Deck) are 3-bed staterooms with 2x porthole windows (non-opening). Triple cabins can be also booked as doubles.

Shipboard dining and entertainment options

Dining onboard MS Fedin features European cuisine sp[ecialties with elements of Russian traditional cooking. Breakfasts are buffet-style. Lunches include 1 meal (Russian soup). Dinner is waiter-served and with a traditional Russian food menu. Waiters are dressed in traditional costumes.

Onboard entertainment is focused on pre-scheduled activities and live performances (classical and Russian folk music). Onboard lectures are themed on the country's history and culture. Port talks (by a professional tour guide) provide information on visited river ports, nearby towns, shore excursions and tours available for booking. Passengers also enjoy traditional Russian tea ceremonies, Russian language lessons, dancing and singing classes, vodka tasting, nesting doll (matryoshka) painting classes.

MS Fedin ship facilities include:

  • (Boat Deck, Middle Deck) Two restaurants
  • (Boat Deck) Panorama Bar Lounge
  • (Sun Deck) Conference Hall and Bar (Dance Hall / Cinema / Meeting Room)
  • (Middle Deck) Bar Lounge / Library / Reading Hall
  • (Sun Deck) Spa (Sauna), Solarium (sundeck area with outdoor seating/deckchairs and 4-seat tables), covered fitness area (outdoor Gym with exercise machines)
  • (Main Deck) Medical Room (Infirmary), Beauty Salon (hairdresser and barber services, massages), Lobby (Reception Desk)
  • (Middle Deck) Ironing Room (laundry service), Boutique (Souvenir Shop)

VODOHOD cruise deals

  • Departure port (dock/berth), check-in, boarding and landing times are indicated on the company's website (vodohod.com) and on passengers' boarding passes. Ship's exact departure time is clarified on the website the day prior departure.
  • Kids discount ticket prices are for children up to 14 years of age (14-yo including), the age being fixed on departure day.
  • Kids from 2 to 5 years of age (5-yo including) travel free of charge, but without providing an additional bed (if there are no free beds in the cabin). Shore excursions are also free of charge.
  • Toddlers (kids under 2) travel free of charge, but bed, food and tour services are not provided. Extra beds in staterooms (baby cribs, cots) are not available on the ship.
  • TWIN (double cabin) single supplement rate is 75%.
  • Cabin number is provided 7 days prior departure. Reservation of a specific room number costs EUR 50 pp per cruise.
  • Ticket prices are inclusive of 3 meals a day. Onboard dining includes Breakfast (buffet style, water in pitchers, tea/ coffee served, drinks - cocoa, milk, juices, hot and cold dishes), Lunch (buffet style, water in pitchers, tea/coffee served) and Dinner (waiter-served) with 1 Starter, 1 Main course (choice of 3 available / meat-fish-vegetarian), 1 Dessert (choice of 2 or fruits).
  • On embarkation day and disembarkation day (voyage's end), meal times depend on landing times. If a land tour coincides with a meal time (lunch), passengers are provided with complimentary food at a local restaurant (cafe) or given "dry rations".
  • Ticket price inclusive onboard events are Welcome Aboard ("bread and salt" ceremony), Welcome Cocktail (complimentary 1 glass of champagne or juice per person), "Tea Ceremony" (tea and traditional pies), "Vodka Show" (blini and vodka tasting), Cocktail Party (once per cruise, complimentary 1 cocktail / out of 3 choices per person), Captain's Dinner (gourmet menu, once per cruise), mulled wine or ice tea (weather-depending / upon returning from excursions), complimentary Coffee Station (coffee, hot water, packed tea, milk, cocoa, cookies, opening times 6am-breakfast, 10-12am, 4-6pm, 9-11pm), 1 bottled water (0.33l pp per day in cabins). Tickets are also inclusive of foreign language speaking guide services, onboard entertainment (language class, singing lessons, live music, nightly dancing music, Wheelhouse tour).
  • Complimentary excursions are detailed in the ship's cruise itinerary program. Optional tours are available for shipboard booking. For excursion services, VODOHOD charges foreigners with an additional fee per person per day, including children 6-14 yo. This fee is not charged to tourists from the Russian Commonwealth, Ukraine, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The surcharge varies by cruise tour itinerary length (1-2-days, 3-4-days, 5-days, 6-days, 7-days).
  • VODOHOD cruise tickets don't include any land transfers, beverages and snacks (in onboard bars and lounges), phone conversations, sauna visits, optional excursions, travel insurance, gratuities, personal spendings. Ticket prices include 18% VAT.
  • Non-cash onboard payments are made via the company's debit card "Vodohod"(received upon registration), which is without any interest or commissions. The card is accepted in all the ship's venues (bars, restaurant, shop, administration). Cash payments for onboard sales are not accepted. International bank cards are accepted for final payments.
  • Gift Certificate "Vodohod" (vouchers) can be pre-purchased for any amount. The recipient can choose the itinerary, cruise departure date and cabin category. The amount specified is not fixed and is set by the buyer. If the cruise tour costs less than the certificate's amount, the difference is not refundable.
  • Smoking on the ship is allowed only in designated areas (marked with "Place for smoking" signs), located aft on decks Middle and/or Boat (depending on ship). Smoking is prohibited in all interior spaces and on open decks (except at designated areas).
  • On all VODOHOD ships are available health gymnastics and morning exercises (led by a certified physician/ship's doctor), oxygen cocktail, dietary food.
  • On all VODOHOD ships are provided (free of charge) the following medical services - emergency medical care (assistance required for sudden acute illnesses, conditions, exacerbation of chronic diseases), measurement of blood pressure and body temperature, primary treatment of wounds.
  • VODOHOD recommends passengers to arrive in departure port cities at least 6 hours prior to ship departure. Boarding starts 2 hours prior departure. All passengers must be boarded at least 1-hour prior to departure. Late passengers missing their cruise tour are not refunded.
  • VODOHOD's departure ports are Moscow, St Petersburg, Astrakhan, Nizhny Novgorod, Perm, Samara, Kazan, Volgograd, Rostov-on-Don, Saratov.

Note: You can see the CruiseMapper's list of all river cruise ships and riverboats in the "itinerary" section of our River Cruises hub. All companies and their fleets are listed there.


Konstantin Fedin

Konstantin Aleksandrovici Fedin (în rusă Константин Александрович Федин ) (n. 24 februarie, S.V. 12 februarie, 1892 - d. 15 iulie 1977, Moscova) a fost un romancier și poet rus.

Fedin a scris romane de analiză psihologică, care relatează participarea intelectualilor la Revoluția bolșevică din Rusia. Unele dintre romane (Orașe și ani) au unele implicații autobiografice.

Konstantin Fedin s-a născut la 24 februarie, S.V. 12 februarie, 1892 în orașul Saratov, unde și-a petrecut copilăria și primii ani ai adolescenței. Mama sa, Anna Pavlovna, născută Aleakrinskaia, a fost fiica unui învățător de la țară, iar tatăl său, Alexandr Erofeevici, a fost fiul unui țăran iobag părinții lui Konstantin nu au avut o relație armonioasă. A lucrat ca vânzător în prăvălia tatălui său și, în cele din urmă, și-a deschis un magazin de papetărie. A fost un autodidact, i-au plăcut foarte mult versurile, dar a răsfoit și biografii ale sfinților. [6]

A studiat în perioada 1899-1914. După ce a finalizat studiile primare, Fedin s-a înscris la școala comercială din Saratov, unde a absolvit liceul din Kozlov. În 1907-1908 a fugit de două ori, de acasă, la Moscova. În 1911 a intrat la Institutul Comercial din Moscova, ca student la secția de științe economice. [6]

Primele sale publicații datează din 1913 - debutează în literatură cu nuvela Nimicuri publicată în revista Novîi Satirikon (Noul Satiric). În primăvara anului 1914, după terminarea celui de-al treilea an de studii universitare, a plecat în Germania pentru a-și îmbunătăți limba germană, la Nürnberg, unde a fost prins de declanșarea Primului Război Mondial (1914-1918). A încercat să treacă granița pentru a se întoarce în Rusia, dar a fost reținut la Dresda. Până în 1918 a locuit în Germania ca prizonier civil, a lucrat ca actor în teatrele orașelor Zittau și Görlitz. În această perioadă a continuat să scrie, fără să își formeze o optică proprie, deoarece, rând pe rând, a fost influențat de literatura lui Dostoievski, Strindberg și Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson, precum și de cea a expresioniștilor germani. Perioada a fost deosebit de fertilă în ceea ce privește acumularea de observații asupra Europei occidentale, dinaintea și din timpul Primului Război Mondial, observații care au și constituit baza primului său roman, Orașe și ani. [6]

În septembrie 1918 s-a întors la Moscova, unde a slujit în Comisariatul Poporului pentru învățământ. În 1919 a locuit în Sâzran, unde a lucrat ca secretar al Comitetului Executiv al orașului, a întemeiat revista Otkliki (Ecouri) (aici, sub pseudonimul K. Aliakrinski, a publicat prima sa povestire, „Fericirea”) și a colaborat la ziarul Sîzranski kommunar. Sub pseudonimul Petru Șved, a publicat editoriale, eseuri, foiletoane și chiar recenzii de teatru. [7] În octombrie 1919 a fost mobilizat și trimis pe front în cadrul ofensivei lui Iudenici. A făcut parte din Divizia specială bașkiră de cavalerie și s-a ocupat de difuzarea presei către cele patru regimente de pe front. A fost transferat apoi la redacția Boevaia Pravda, gazeta Armatei a 7-a, unde a fost redactor adjunct până la începutul anului 1921. [6]

  • Singurătate (Pustîr, 1923)
  • Orașe și ani (Города и годы, Goroda i godî, 1924)
  • Frații (Bratya, 1928)
  • Sanatoriul Arktur (1940)
  • Gorki printre noi (Gorki sredi nas, 1941-1944)
  • Primele bucurii (Pervîe radosti, Первые радости, 1945)
  • O vară neobișnuită (Neobîknovennoe leto, Необыкновенное лето, 1948)
  • Rugul (Koster, Костер, 1961)
  1. ^Autoritatea BnF , accesat în 10 octombrie 2015
  2. ^ abAutoritatea BnF , accesat în 10 octombrie 2015
  3. ^Федин Константин Александрович, Marea Enciclopedie Sovietică (1969–1978)[*] ​ |access-date= necesită |url= (ajutor)
  4. ^Konstantin Aleksandrovich Fedin, Encyclopædia Britannica Online , accesat în 9 octombrie 2017
  5. ^Konstantin Fedin, SNAC , accesat în 9 octombrie 2017
  6. ^ abcd Tabel cronologic, în Sanatoriul Arktur, EPL, BPT, 1964. Traducere de Otilia Cazimir și Isabela Dumbravă
  7. ^http://историческая-самара.рф/%D0%BA%D0%B0%D1%82%D0%B0%D0%BB%D0%BE%D0%B3/%D1%81%D0%B0%D0%BC%D0%B0%D1%80%D1%81%D0%BA%D0%B0%D1%8F-%D0%BF%D0%B5%D1%80%D1%81%D0%BE%D0%BD%D0%B0%D0%BB%D0%B8%D1%8F/%D1%84/%D1%84%D0%B5%D0%B4%D0%B8%D0%BD-%D0%BA%D0%BE%D0%BD%D1%81%D1%82%D0%B0%D0%BD%D1%82%D0%B8%D0%BD-%D0%B0%D0%BB%D0%B5%D0%BA%D1%81%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%B4%D1%80%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%B8%D1%87.html

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Biography of Konstantin Alexandrovich Fedin (1892-1977)

Soviet Narrator, born in Saratov (in the Volga region) in 1892 and died in Moscow in 1977. Considered one of the great novelists of Russian literature of the 20th century, he/she left a splendid novelistic production characterized by a traditional and Orthodox realism that turns him into the best follower of the classical models of nineteenth-century Russian fiction.

Born in a family in which meet very different backgrounds (his mother was of noble lineage, while his father belonged to the peasant class), the young Kostantin completed his secondary studies at the Moscow Institute of Commerce, where he/she received an extraordinary education that seemed to destine him - by the exceptional natural talent that made gala - part of the radical inteliguentsia. When he/she expanded his studies in Bavaria came the outbreak of World War I, circumstance that Kostantin Fedin took to become a refugee in Germany, and thanks to the knowledge of the language, to explore diverse populations in that country. Already at that time had begun to cultivate their innate literary vocation, although it would not be professionally devoted to the craft of writing until several years later, when the footballer Gorky introduced him in one of the finest literary circles of their nation: the Serapion Brothers. Meanwhile, the young Konstantin Fedin served in the Red Army and held several positions in various Soviet institutions, activities that was combining with the writing of the stories that would set up its first delivery at the printing press, a work set presented under the title of the site (1923).

It was the aforementioned Gorki who noticed the brilliance of these new stories of Fedin and who took care to introduce him as "a writer, serious, working cautiously not in a hurry to say a Word, but when he/she says it, he/she says it well." With this eloquent presentation card, Konstantin Alexandrovich Fedin returned to the shelves of the libraries a year later to report his novel titled the cities and years (1924), a splendid story that not only came to confirm their worth as a writer, he/she contributed decisively to restore old current epic 19th-century Russian novels, interrupted by the tendency to the storypoetic prose and fragmentary narratives shown by the writers immediately following the Russian revolution.

Regarded as the first great novel of the newly created Soviet Union, cities and years reached a huge spread throughout the country, at the time that generated an on controversy surrounding the opportunity to recover or not, within that new reality socio-political who had just set up, the old themes and methods of the nineteenth-century realist narrative. On the other hand, Fedin, who had educated for several years in Europe and was heavily influenced by Western culture, was seen with certain reservations by some Orthodox intellectuals However, the writer of Saratov, which in 1919 had affiliated to the Communist Party - while it is true that to leave him only two years more later--whenever it had the opportunity to do so their unconditional support to the revolution and the establishment of the Soviet Republic proclaimed, and extolled the revolutionary individualism as the authentic depiction of the idiosyncrasies of the Russian people.

The success of his first novel surprised him in a village in the region of Smolensk, which was removed during a three-year period (1923-1926). Fruit of that literary apartment were the three stories that shaped a new printed issue, published in 1928 under the title of Transvaal. The following year returned to the brochure for stamping his second extensive narration, entitled the brothers (1928), work which, on the same line as the cities and years, came to express that concern would be a constant in all literary Fedin production: internal contradictions in which he/she lived engulfed a whole intellectual class thatAlthough it had participated enthusiastically in the revolutionary process and showed all the innovations provided by the Republic, supported not could flatly renounce their old cultural and spiritual background.

The fact of being declared an acute tuberculous process allowed him to obtain various permits for prolonged stays in different places of rest from abroad. Thus, Fedin was able to maintain a fruitful contact with several intellectuals and European and North American artists who, by the early 1930s, considered - as the writer of Saratov-communism as a kind of humanism, and the Soviet Union as a reincarnation of the progressive and enlightened France of the 18th century. It was as well as emerged the third extensive narration of Konstantin Fedin, the rape of Europa (1934), a political work focused on relations between the West and the Soviets, and - from a strictly literary perspective - unanimously considered as his least successful novel.

Two years later, the famous Soviet writer returned to focus his narrative breath in Europe, this time in a Swiss resort that the novel's protagonist became space short sanatorium Arktur (1936), where it was symbolically disease of the West, to oppose it to the vitality of the Soviet Union. In full creative vitality, at the beginning of the 1940s Fedin was used to fund the drafting of a fictional trilogy that was intended to reflect a genuine Communist hero whose roots sank in the recent past, in order to achieve, through the reflection of your life journey, a series of stories that were, at the same time, historical and contemporary. So were emerging the first joys (1945), an extraordinary summer (1948) - both awarded with the prestigious "Premio Stalin" - and the fire (1961), three narratives that constitute a magnificent fresco of the life in Russia from 1910 to 1941, within a rigorously realistic aesthetic that reflects perfectly the contrasts between the recent generations and which were at its peak in the first years of the 20th century.

Always in contact with the Western countries (what become you, in those years, a privileged within the strict Soviet regime), Konstantín Fedin had worked as a correspondent at the front during World War II. Best ever considered in the Kremlin and its peer's literary career, in 1959 was appointed Secretary General of the Union of Soviet writers, organism whose Presidency achieved in 1971. However, so many official recognitions made him lose predicament among new generations of Soviet writers (particularly those that appeared in the post-estalinista period), which, while recognizing its importance as a link between nineteenth-century prose and the new storytellers of the twentieth century, saw in Fedin embodiment of the intellectual accommodated and complacent with the political regime that uses it, at the same time, as a flag. And, indeed, until his last days the writer of Saratov agreed to represent that role of intellectual official, even though its real influence in the new literature of his people was already practically nil.

The seven stories that make up the solar (1923) are focused - according to the testimony of the author - in "the plying without dragging the heavy cart in the history of time in time". The most famous of them, entitled "The Orchard", better than any other shows that traditional and conservative inspiration that reveals, in this first printed issue of Fedin, the remarkable influence of Chekhov and Bunin.

The protagonist of the cities and years (1924), Andréi Startsov, is a Russian intellectual who, prisoner in a German city of provinces during the first world war, has many autobiographical features of the own Konstantin Fedin. Encourage a revolutionary passion in the young woman that falls in love, he/she manages to escape with the decisive help of this and returns to Russia. There, Andrei is introduced into the Communist Party, forgets his German past, leaves his beloved Mary and has a son with a young Russian woman. In general, this character embodies the weakness of intellectuals who, in its purity, is unable to adapt to the rawness of new times and this inability, which will bring you destruction, begins to be the symbol of the constant theme in much of the work of Fedin: the conflict between the hesitant spirit of the artist and the firmness required of the Bolshevik good. Here influenced in equal parts by the nineteenth-century tradition of Russian and English, Fedin, from the title and the dedication of this work, not hid his debt to the novel by Dickens story of two cities.

The three stories of Transvaal (1927), referred to the harshness of rural life, were not well understood by most orthodox communist critics, who thought he/she saw in them an anachronistic defence of the kulaks (rich peasants) of yesteryear. However, the mere assessment of the psychological characterization of some of the characters who populate these novellas is enough to dispel this hasty judgement.

Brothers (1928), the writer of Saratov returned to raise the conflict between the intellectual and the revolution, now embodied in the figure of a musician who, against the Bolshevik refined spirit of two younger brothers, claims to be exempted from the revolutionary collective work to devote itself fully to the individual artistic creation. However, the death of the most uncompromising of their brothers takes you to join the cause for which the young person has lost their lives, managing to overcome the contradiction between art and the revolutionary struggle as well: the thesis proposed by Fedin is that it is possible to integrate the legacy humanist of the past in the harsh demands of a new egalitarian society.

After the failed attempt of the rape of Europa (1934), Konstantín Fedin returned to reap praise from critics and readers with the sanatorium Arktur (1936), a symbolic novelita in which the influence of the Magic Mountain, by Thomas Mann, in the atmosphere of the facts (located in a secluded sanitary residence), is now clear even though the intention of the work is then unrelated to the novel by German writer.

Finally, the novelistic trilogy of Fedin (composed by the first joys, an extraordinary summer and bonfire) reveals a seasoned and prolific narrative maturity that reaches hardly surmountable levels within realistic aesthetics of the 20th century. Within the same thematic keys cheering his previous production, Saratov writer knew how to capture in these three novels all his mastery in the psychological characterization of the characters and the description of the various social environments, without an iota of traditional models of Russian narrative of the 19th century. Are, from the stylistic point of view, the more conservative parts of Konstantin Fedin, but also the highest of your ability to novelistic in structure a work perfectly and give their characters in the most appropriate language in each case.

Bibliography.

DENTED VARGAS, Luis. Modern Russian literature (Barcelona: work, 1972).

THE GATTO, Ettore. Modern Russian literature (Buenos Aires: Losada, 1973).

SLONIM, Marc. Writers and problems of Soviet literature, 1917-1967 (Madrid: Alianza Editorial, 1974).


Cambridge Forecast Group Blog

CITIES AND YEARS by Konstantin Fedin (1924)

ISBN 0-8101-1066-0

Cities and Years

Konstantin Fedin

They have some beers in a restaurant, and the student expounds on various topics. He says that, despite appearances, there is such a profound feeling of impatience among the German people that a volcanolike explosion is inevitable.”

“WHEN THE WORLD WAR REALLY STARTED”

From “Cities and Years” CHAPTER ABOUT 1914

Fedin, Konstantin Aleksandrovich. Born 24 February (12 February, Old Style) 1892 in Saratov . His father was a merchant, running a stationary store. At a young age, in addition to attending school, Fedin began to learn the violin. In 1901, he entered the Commercial Academy. In 1905, together with his entire class, he participated in a student’s strike. In 1907, he ran off to Moscow where he pawned his violin. His father, however, tracked him down and dragged him home. He made another attempt to escape–in a boat along the Volga–but this plot was foiled, too.

Rather then go to work in his father’s store, Fedin continued his studies at the Commercial Academy in Kozlov. It was here that he developed a love of literature and started writing. His first story, written in 1910, was Sluchai c Vasiliem Porfirevich (“Incident with Vasili Porfirevich”), an imitation of Gogol’s Overcoat.

In 1911, he went on to study economics at the Moscow Commercial Institute. He continued writing and in 1913 his first published work, Melochi (“Trifles”) appeared in the Petersburg journal New Satirycon. Upon seeing his words in print for the first time, Fedin recalls being so happy that he skipped and sang.

In the spring of 1914 he went to Nuremburg to study German. At the outbreak of World War I, he tried to high-tail it back to Russia, but he was seized in Dresden. He and other Russians were held by the Germans as civilian hostages until the conclusion of the Brest Treaty. So, in the autumn of 1918 Fedin returned to Moscow, where he worked for a while in the People’s Commisariate of Education.

In 1924, Fedin finished his masterful novel Goroda i Gody (“Cities and Years”) , one of the first Soviet novels, portraying the path of the intelligentisa during the Revolution and Civil War. It was also a work of stylistic and structural novelties.

In the novel, a spineless Russian intellectual, Andrei Startsov, is interred in Germany at the start of World War I. He falls in love with a German girl, Mari, who helps him in an escape attempt. He is perceptive in his observations of the cruelty and contradictions of German militarism, and back in Russia after the war, he struggles to find his place in Revolutionary society. He wants to join the new exciting world, but is frozen by his intellectual detachment and proves unable to make any contribution, to take any action.

He was, in short:

…a man who, with anguish, waited for life to accept him. To his very last moment, he took not a single step, but waited for the wind to bring him to the shore he hoped to reach.

Forgetting his promises to send for Mari, Andrei drifts into another affair and gets another girl pregnant. He also helps a personal acquaintance, now a counterrevolutionary, escape Soviet justice. He has a chance to turn in this enemy of the people, but fearing that he himself would have a man’s blood–even a guilty man’s blood–on his hand, he fails to take action. For this betrayal of the Soviet cause, his best friend kills Andrei.

Fedin called Cities and Years an “emotional sequence” and told it with a non-sequential narrative line, starting with the end. If arranged in the proper time sequence, the order of chapters would be: 4, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 2, 9, and 1. The novel is also filled with frequent lyrical digressions.

In the 1930s, the German translation of Cities and Years had the honor of being among those books burned on Nazi bonfires.

In that same year, Fedin traveled through Norway, Holland, Denmark, and Germany . Then, in 1931, he fell ill with pulmonary tuberculosis and went to Switzerland for treatment. He then spent the years 1933 and 1934 in Italy and France. These trips provided material for his next two novels, Pokhishcheniye Evropy (“The Rape of Europe”) (1934) and Sanatori Arktur (“The Arktur Sanitorium”) (1940). In The Rape of Europe, members of a bourgeois Dutch family bicker among themselves as they try to hold onto a timber concession in the Soviet Union. In the end, the Soviet Union is strong enough to kick them out, reducing them to the status of timber brokers. The tale is told through the eyes of a Communist journalist, who abscounds with the wife of one of the Dutchmen. The Arktur Sanitorium depicts patients in a Swiss health sanitorium.

Fedin returned to novels and undertook a triology consisting of Perviye Radosti (“First Joys”) (1946), Neobyknovennoye Leto (“No Ordinary Summer”) (1948), and Koster (“The Bonfire”) (1961), offering a chronicle of Russian life between 1910 and 1941 . The first of these, First Joys, is a broad, realistic novel set in Saratov on the Volga on the eve of World War I. It shows the actions of a young, budding revolutionary (Izvekov) and an older revolutionary factory worker (Ragozin), as well as various other strata of pre-revolutionary Russia.

No Ordinary Summer begins in 1919 when a Russian soldier escapes from a German prisoner of war camp and makes it back to Russia, which is caught up in the Civil War. Also returning are Izvekov and Ragozin, who meet up with old friends and enemies. As Aleksei Tolstoy did in his novel Bread, here Fedin alters history somewhat to make Stalin, not Trotsky, the hero of the Battle of Tsaritsyn. The novel also features a nonpolitical writer trying to maintain his artistic freedom and express his sympathies for the suffering, no matter what side they are on. And in the third book of the trilogy, The Bonfire, a positive hero rushes to the defense of the motherland when the Nazis invade Russia.

Konstantin Fedin died in Moscow on 15 July 1977.

Cities and Years

The cities are Berlin and Moscow, the years those of the First World War and the Russian Revolution, and the theme enduring: what role should the intelligentsia play in the inevitable revolution looming over society? Konstantin Fedin’s intense exploration of war and its aftermath focuses on Andrei Startsov, an intellectual who must wrestle with his ambivalence toward the convulsions in his homeland and with his love for the rebellious and fiercely independent Marie. A respectful confrontation with the giants of nineteenth-century Russian literature–Tolstoy above all–and an experiment in narrative technique reminiscent of Joyce or Dos Passos, Cities and Years reflects the sensibility of the modernist Serapion Brotherhood to which Fedin belonged.

Northwestern University Press

5 1/8 x 7 3/4, 462 pp.

Trade Paper

ISBN 0-8101-1066-0

CHAPTER ABOUT 1914
THE CENTRIFUGE OF LOVE

Andrei and Kurt are in sunny Erlangen for a summer holiday. Kurt takes Andrei to an anatomical museum. There they see various body parts and organs preserved in jars. There are also fetuses in all states of development. And, most prominently, is the severed head of Karl Ebersoks, a murderer, the last person to undergo a public execution in Nuremburg . Andrei becomes somewhat vexed, saying they should be out on carousels and in the sun, not in a museum visiting the dead.

All is festive in Erlangen, with rides, game booths, attractions, and hawkers selling: suspenders that can lift weights without loosing their stretch dainty parasols ice-cold lemonade etc., etc. Parrots squawk and intelligent donkeys bray organ grinders, orchestras, pianos, and violins play. But above all this rises the sound of human voices because of the human compulsion to drown out everything else, not only with sales pitches, but also with laughter and declarations of love.

And for love, what better contraption than the carousel? Lovers sitting close to one another in their chariots, spinning in and out of darkness on this enchanted centrifuge of love.

WHEN THE WORLD WAR REALLY STARTED

While wandering around the fair, Andrei and Kurt observe a very popular game booth. People throw balls at representations of the heads of famous executed criminals. Particularly popular with the players is the head of that well-known murderer, bandit, and torturer of women, Karl Ebersoks. Andrei is aghast. A passing student, overhearing Andrei’s negative reaction, counters that it’s a marvelous sport, combining physical exercise with a moral and patriotic lesson.

They have some beers in a restaurant, and the student expounds on various topics. He says that, despite appearances, there is such a profound feeling of impatience among the German people that a volcanolike explosion is inevitable.

The student begins to flirt with a young woman on the other side of the restaurant by tossing paper streamers at her. He pauses in his flirtation to note that this holiday is known as a gynecological holiday because, every year, a few months after the holiday, many women show up at the clinic for abortions. Andrei and Kurt don’t believe him. But the student insists that he is right and that tonight even he will achieve his goal with the young woman on the other end of the streamers.

Andrei and Kurt decide that the student is a little nuts and leave him. But, sure enough, later that night, they see the student locked in an ardent embrace with the young woman.

CHAPTER ABOUT 1918

The Brest-Litovsk peace has been signed, and Andrei is getting ready to return to Russia. He and Mari have a tearful farewell. Andrei promises to get himself settled and send for Mari within two months. Hennig advises Andrei to forget Mari, saying that there with be other towns, other girls. But, Hennig concedes, he and Andrei disagree about politics and probably disagree about women, too.

Hennig shows Andrei an announcement in the paper. It is from a German soldier who lost his leg in the war. Because of his injury, he has been abandoned by his bride and is now seeking as he new life’s partner a woman who herself has a lost or wounded leg.

Before leaving, Andrei picks up from the floor a faded flower…a gift from Mari.

Andrei is put on a train with Lependin and many other Russian soldiers being sent back to Russia. Lependin and the soldiers begin boasting about their various regions. Also on the train is a civilian muzhik named Kisel. He is burly but sick. He comes from around Minsk and complains that his land was destroyed. A fellow with high cheekbones says they shouldn’t feel sorry for Kisel, because Kisel’s talking about private land. Besides, Kisel went to work for the Germans , hoping to make some money. Things have changed in Russia, the high-cheekboned fellow says. The only worthwhile land use, he points out, is one that benefits all the peasant. The soldiers nod in agreement.

The train stops at a station which is crowded with Russians heading back to Russia and Germans heading back to Germany. The fellow with high cheekbones comments approvingly on how all the soldiers are fraternizing with one another. He then goes on to move among the soldiers, talking with and reasoning with them all.

A person who lives alone, by himself, is not long for this world. The people have begun to live in peace, in harmony, with equal rights. We don’t need such loners

Andrei sees a group of three blind soldiers and suddenly remembers the blind Italian soldiers in the Park of Seven Ponds and his meeting with Mari. And again, just like back that, Andrei is separated from Mari by the road.

DISHARMONIOUS MOSCOW
A German Teacher’s View

“Moscow is striking with its wildness, which many travelers are inclined to consider beauty. All the contradictions of Russian life, all the chaos of the world view of the Russian people are revealed in the architecture of the gloomy and naive Kremlin. The Italian Middle Ages mingled with late Byzantium. It’s not easy to decipher this mixture, owing to the Mongolian splendor of the decorations and superstructures. Currently, this monument of barbaric life is surrounded by an Asiatic bazaar and European houses, built according to the German style and by German engineers. Moscow is the native element of the Russian, but the civilized foreigner is pained by the city because of the disharmony of its parts and the irritating splendor of its buildings.”

WITHOUT BLACK AND WHITE
When Kurt was in school, his geography teacher described Moscow as a wild, painful confusion of style. And certainly it was strange and foreign, but it was so fascinating that Kurt couldn’t help but wander around daily, discovering new lanes and back entrances.

Kurt is working with a group of artists in Moscow, painting a two-story poster of a blue-skinned man. They stand on ladders above the painting to view it. Kurt’s comments, in German , are horribly distorted by the translator. In the same building, printing presses are churning out leaflets. As the artists eat, Kurt comments that even the soup tastes of duplicating ink. “What an amazing people,” Kurt says about the Russians. “They write so much.” But in all the hub-bub, Kurt sees a great, healthy purpose.

Andrei returns to Moscow. He passes the German embassy . On the roof, a man lowers the black-white-and-red German flag. He rips off the black and white stripes, then hoists back up the remaining red stripe so that a red banner is flying over the German embassy. As the German ambassador tries to leave the building he is confronted by a group of former German soldier-prisoners. They announce that they have decided to form a Soviet of Soldier Deputies of Germany and that the Soviet will take over the business of the German Embassy. The man who ripped up the flag throws the black and white remnants at the feet of the ambassador. Andrei sees that the flag-ripper is Kurt! They embrace each other happily.

Kurt says that if not for his experiences in the war, his view of the world might not have changed. But the horrible music of war, the view through barbed wire, the view from underneath has cleared his head. The old glue which used to hold things together is no good. Now, everything must be broken apart in order to start anew.

Kurt apologizes to Andrei for his ignorant behavior on the tram car back in Nuremberg . Andrei says that he himself has not changed, that he still hates war. Kurt says there are different kinds of war, and that evil and war can only be defeated with war.

Andrei and Kurt renew their vow of friendship until death. Somewhat distractedly, Andrei says he wishes he were back in Germany . Kurt thinks this melancholy is just the result of Andrei having nothing to do. Kurt says he’s being send to Semidol to help evacuate former German prisons and form a Soviet out of them. He invites Andrei to come along, and Andrei agrees.

Andrei tells Kurt all about Mari. Now Kurt understands why Andrei wants to be back in Germany . Kurt sees that the most important thing in Andrei’s life is now love. In his own life, Kurt says, the most important thing is now hate.

CITIES AND YEARS by Konstantin Fedin (1924)

ISBN 0-8101-1066-0

Cities and Years Konstantin Fedin

They have some beers in a restaurant, and the student expounds on various topics. He says that, despite appearances, there is such a profound feeling of impatience among the German people that a volcanolike explosion is inevitable.”

“WHEN THE WORLD WAR REALLY STARTED”

From “Cities and Years” CHAPTER ABOUT 1914


Cambridge Forecast Group Blog

CITIES AND YEARS by Konstantin Fedin (1924)

ISBN 0-8101-1066-0

Cities and Years

Konstantin Fedin

They have some beers in a restaurant, and the student expounds on various topics. He says that, despite appearances, there is such a profound feeling of impatience among the German people that a volcanolike explosion is inevitable.”

“WHEN THE WORLD WAR REALLY STARTED”

From “Cities and Years” CHAPTER ABOUT 1914

Fedin, Konstantin Aleksandrovich. Born 24 February (12 February, Old Style) 1892 in Saratov . His father was a merchant, running a stationary store. At a young age, in addition to attending school, Fedin began to learn the violin. In 1901, he entered the Commercial Academy. In 1905, together with his entire class, he participated in a student’s strike. In 1907, he ran off to Moscow where he pawned his violin. His father, however, tracked him down and dragged him home. He made another attempt to escape–in a boat along the Volga–but this plot was foiled, too.

Rather then go to work in his father’s store, Fedin continued his studies at the Commercial Academy in Kozlov. It was here that he developed a love of literature and started writing. His first story, written in 1910, was Sluchai c Vasiliem Porfirevich (“Incident with Vasili Porfirevich”), an imitation of Gogol’s Overcoat.

In 1911, he went on to study economics at the Moscow Commercial Institute. He continued writing and in 1913 his first published work, Melochi (“Trifles”) appeared in the Petersburg journal New Satirycon. Upon seeing his words in print for the first time, Fedin recalls being so happy that he skipped and sang.

In the spring of 1914 he went to Nuremburg to study German. At the outbreak of World War I, he tried to high-tail it back to Russia, but he was seized in Dresden. He and other Russians were held by the Germans as civilian hostages until the conclusion of the Brest Treaty. So, in the autumn of 1918 Fedin returned to Moscow, where he worked for a while in the People’s Commisariate of Education.

In 1924, Fedin finished his masterful novel Goroda i Gody (“Cities and Years”) , one of the first Soviet novels, portraying the path of the intelligentisa during the Revolution and Civil War. It was also a work of stylistic and structural novelties.

In the novel, a spineless Russian intellectual, Andrei Startsov, is interred in Germany at the start of World War I. He falls in love with a German girl, Mari, who helps him in an escape attempt. He is perceptive in his observations of the cruelty and contradictions of German militarism, and back in Russia after the war, he struggles to find his place in Revolutionary society. He wants to join the new exciting world, but is frozen by his intellectual detachment and proves unable to make any contribution, to take any action.

He was, in short:

…a man who, with anguish, waited for life to accept him. To his very last moment, he took not a single step, but waited for the wind to bring him to the shore he hoped to reach.

Forgetting his promises to send for Mari, Andrei drifts into another affair and gets another girl pregnant. He also helps a personal acquaintance, now a counterrevolutionary, escape Soviet justice. He has a chance to turn in this enemy of the people, but fearing that he himself would have a man’s blood–even a guilty man’s blood–on his hand, he fails to take action. For this betrayal of the Soviet cause, his best friend kills Andrei.

Fedin called Cities and Years an “emotional sequence” and told it with a non-sequential narrative line, starting with the end. If arranged in the proper time sequence, the order of chapters would be: 4, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 2, 9, and 1. The novel is also filled with frequent lyrical digressions.

In the 1930s, the German translation of Cities and Years had the honor of being among those books burned on Nazi bonfires.

In that same year, Fedin traveled through Norway, Holland, Denmark, and Germany . Then, in 1931, he fell ill with pulmonary tuberculosis and went to Switzerland for treatment. He then spent the years 1933 and 1934 in Italy and France. These trips provided material for his next two novels, Pokhishcheniye Evropy (“The Rape of Europe”) (1934) and Sanatori Arktur (“The Arktur Sanitorium”) (1940). In The Rape of Europe, members of a bourgeois Dutch family bicker among themselves as they try to hold onto a timber concession in the Soviet Union. In the end, the Soviet Union is strong enough to kick them out, reducing them to the status of timber brokers. The tale is told through the eyes of a Communist journalist, who abscounds with the wife of one of the Dutchmen. The Arktur Sanitorium depicts patients in a Swiss health sanitorium.

Fedin returned to novels and undertook a triology consisting of Perviye Radosti (“First Joys”) (1946), Neobyknovennoye Leto (“No Ordinary Summer”) (1948), and Koster (“The Bonfire”) (1961), offering a chronicle of Russian life between 1910 and 1941 . The first of these, First Joys, is a broad, realistic novel set in Saratov on the Volga on the eve of World War I. It shows the actions of a young, budding revolutionary (Izvekov) and an older revolutionary factory worker (Ragozin), as well as various other strata of pre-revolutionary Russia.

No Ordinary Summer begins in 1919 when a Russian soldier escapes from a German prisoner of war camp and makes it back to Russia, which is caught up in the Civil War. Also returning are Izvekov and Ragozin, who meet up with old friends and enemies. As Aleksei Tolstoy did in his novel Bread, here Fedin alters history somewhat to make Stalin, not Trotsky, the hero of the Battle of Tsaritsyn. The novel also features a nonpolitical writer trying to maintain his artistic freedom and express his sympathies for the suffering, no matter what side they are on. And in the third book of the trilogy, The Bonfire, a positive hero rushes to the defense of the motherland when the Nazis invade Russia.

Konstantin Fedin died in Moscow on 15 July 1977.

Cities and Years

The cities are Berlin and Moscow, the years those of the First World War and the Russian Revolution, and the theme enduring: what role should the intelligentsia play in the inevitable revolution looming over society? Konstantin Fedin’s intense exploration of war and its aftermath focuses on Andrei Startsov, an intellectual who must wrestle with his ambivalence toward the convulsions in his homeland and with his love for the rebellious and fiercely independent Marie. A respectful confrontation with the giants of nineteenth-century Russian literature–Tolstoy above all–and an experiment in narrative technique reminiscent of Joyce or Dos Passos, Cities and Years reflects the sensibility of the modernist Serapion Brotherhood to which Fedin belonged.

Northwestern University Press

5 1/8 x 7 3/4, 462 pp.

Trade Paper

ISBN 0-8101-1066-0

CHAPTER ABOUT 1914
THE CENTRIFUGE OF LOVE

Andrei and Kurt are in sunny Erlangen for a summer holiday. Kurt takes Andrei to an anatomical museum. There they see various body parts and organs preserved in jars. There are also fetuses in all states of development. And, most prominently, is the severed head of Karl Ebersoks, a murderer, the last person to undergo a public execution in Nuremburg . Andrei becomes somewhat vexed, saying they should be out on carousels and in the sun, not in a museum visiting the dead.

All is festive in Erlangen, with rides, game booths, attractions, and hawkers selling: suspenders that can lift weights without loosing their stretch dainty parasols ice-cold lemonade etc., etc. Parrots squawk and intelligent donkeys bray organ grinders, orchestras, pianos, and violins play. But above all this rises the sound of human voices because of the human compulsion to drown out everything else, not only with sales pitches, but also with laughter and declarations of love.

And for love, what better contraption than the carousel? Lovers sitting close to one another in their chariots, spinning in and out of darkness on this enchanted centrifuge of love.

WHEN THE WORLD WAR REALLY STARTED

While wandering around the fair, Andrei and Kurt observe a very popular game booth. People throw balls at representations of the heads of famous executed criminals. Particularly popular with the players is the head of that well-known murderer, bandit, and torturer of women, Karl Ebersoks. Andrei is aghast. A passing student, overhearing Andrei’s negative reaction, counters that it’s a marvelous sport, combining physical exercise with a moral and patriotic lesson.

They have some beers in a restaurant, and the student expounds on various topics. He says that, despite appearances, there is such a profound feeling of impatience among the German people that a volcanolike explosion is inevitable.

The student begins to flirt with a young woman on the other side of the restaurant by tossing paper streamers at her. He pauses in his flirtation to note that this holiday is known as a gynecological holiday because, every year, a few months after the holiday, many women show up at the clinic for abortions. Andrei and Kurt don’t believe him. But the student insists that he is right and that tonight even he will achieve his goal with the young woman on the other end of the streamers.

Andrei and Kurt decide that the student is a little nuts and leave him. But, sure enough, later that night, they see the student locked in an ardent embrace with the young woman.

CHAPTER ABOUT 1918

The Brest-Litovsk peace has been signed, and Andrei is getting ready to return to Russia. He and Mari have a tearful farewell. Andrei promises to get himself settled and send for Mari within two months. Hennig advises Andrei to forget Mari, saying that there with be other towns, other girls. But, Hennig concedes, he and Andrei disagree about politics and probably disagree about women, too.

Hennig shows Andrei an announcement in the paper. It is from a German soldier who lost his leg in the war. Because of his injury, he has been abandoned by his bride and is now seeking as he new life’s partner a woman who herself has a lost or wounded leg.

Before leaving, Andrei picks up from the floor a faded flower…a gift from Mari.

Andrei is put on a train with Lependin and many other Russian soldiers being sent back to Russia. Lependin and the soldiers begin boasting about their various regions. Also on the train is a civilian muzhik named Kisel. He is burly but sick. He comes from around Minsk and complains that his land was destroyed. A fellow with high cheekbones says they shouldn’t feel sorry for Kisel, because Kisel’s talking about private land. Besides, Kisel went to work for the Germans , hoping to make some money. Things have changed in Russia, the high-cheekboned fellow says. The only worthwhile land use, he points out, is one that benefits all the peasant. The soldiers nod in agreement.

The train stops at a station which is crowded with Russians heading back to Russia and Germans heading back to Germany. The fellow with high cheekbones comments approvingly on how all the soldiers are fraternizing with one another. He then goes on to move among the soldiers, talking with and reasoning with them all.

A person who lives alone, by himself, is not long for this world. The people have begun to live in peace, in harmony, with equal rights. We don’t need such loners

Andrei sees a group of three blind soldiers and suddenly remembers the blind Italian soldiers in the Park of Seven Ponds and his meeting with Mari. And again, just like back that, Andrei is separated from Mari by the road.

DISHARMONIOUS MOSCOW
A German Teacher’s View

“Moscow is striking with its wildness, which many travelers are inclined to consider beauty. All the contradictions of Russian life, all the chaos of the world view of the Russian people are revealed in the architecture of the gloomy and naive Kremlin. The Italian Middle Ages mingled with late Byzantium. It’s not easy to decipher this mixture, owing to the Mongolian splendor of the decorations and superstructures. Currently, this monument of barbaric life is surrounded by an Asiatic bazaar and European houses, built according to the German style and by German engineers. Moscow is the native element of the Russian, but the civilized foreigner is pained by the city because of the disharmony of its parts and the irritating splendor of its buildings.”

WITHOUT BLACK AND WHITE
When Kurt was in school, his geography teacher described Moscow as a wild, painful confusion of style. And certainly it was strange and foreign, but it was so fascinating that Kurt couldn’t help but wander around daily, discovering new lanes and back entrances.

Kurt is working with a group of artists in Moscow, painting a two-story poster of a blue-skinned man. They stand on ladders above the painting to view it. Kurt’s comments, in German , are horribly distorted by the translator. In the same building, printing presses are churning out leaflets. As the artists eat, Kurt comments that even the soup tastes of duplicating ink. “What an amazing people,” Kurt says about the Russians. “They write so much.” But in all the hub-bub, Kurt sees a great, healthy purpose.

Andrei returns to Moscow. He passes the German embassy . On the roof, a man lowers the black-white-and-red German flag. He rips off the black and white stripes, then hoists back up the remaining red stripe so that a red banner is flying over the German embassy. As the German ambassador tries to leave the building he is confronted by a group of former German soldier-prisoners. They announce that they have decided to form a Soviet of Soldier Deputies of Germany and that the Soviet will take over the business of the German Embassy. The man who ripped up the flag throws the black and white remnants at the feet of the ambassador. Andrei sees that the flag-ripper is Kurt! They embrace each other happily.

Kurt says that if not for his experiences in the war, his view of the world might not have changed. But the horrible music of war, the view through barbed wire, the view from underneath has cleared his head. The old glue which used to hold things together is no good. Now, everything must be broken apart in order to start anew.

Kurt apologizes to Andrei for his ignorant behavior on the tram car back in Nuremberg . Andrei says that he himself has not changed, that he still hates war. Kurt says there are different kinds of war, and that evil and war can only be defeated with war.

Andrei and Kurt renew their vow of friendship until death. Somewhat distractedly, Andrei says he wishes he were back in Germany . Kurt thinks this melancholy is just the result of Andrei having nothing to do. Kurt says he’s being send to Semidol to help evacuate former German prisons and form a Soviet out of them. He invites Andrei to come along, and Andrei agrees.

Andrei tells Kurt all about Mari. Now Kurt understands why Andrei wants to be back in Germany . Kurt sees that the most important thing in Andrei’s life is now love. In his own life, Kurt says, the most important thing is now hate.

CITIES AND YEARS by Konstantin Fedin (1924)

ISBN 0-8101-1066-0

Cities and Years Konstantin Fedin

They have some beers in a restaurant, and the student expounds on various topics. He says that, despite appearances, there is such a profound feeling of impatience among the German people that a volcanolike explosion is inevitable.”

“WHEN THE WORLD WAR REALLY STARTED”

From “Cities and Years” CHAPTER ABOUT 1914


Catalogue

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Catalogue Persistent Identifier
APA Citation

Kuznetsov, Nikolai Ivanovich. (1969). Konstantin Fedin. Moskva : "Prosveshehenie,"

MLA Citation

Kuznetsov, Nikolai Ivanovich. Konstantin Fedin "Prosveshehenie," Moskva 1969

Australian/Harvard Citation

Kuznetsov, Nikolai Ivanovich. 1969, Konstantin Fedin "Prosveshehenie," Moskva

Wikipedia Citation
Konstantin Fedin

At head of title: N. I. Kuzietsov.

Title: Konstantin fedpn. Ocherk tvorchestva.

Includes bibliographical references.

000 00762cam a2200253 a 4500
001 1460464
005 20180829060212.0
008 870401s1969 ur 000 0 rus d
019 1 |a7204588
035 |9(AuCNLDY)1372657
035 |a1460464
040 |aANL |beng |cANL
050 0 0 |aPG3476.F4Z75
082 0 4 |a891.784209
100 1 |aKuznetsov, Nikolai Ivanovich.
245 1 0 |aKonstantin Fedin.
260 |aMoskva : |b"Prosveshehenie,", |c1969.
300 |a206 p. : |bwith illus. |c20 cm.
490 0 |aBiblinotek slvesnika
500 |aAt head of title: N. I. Kuzietsov.
500 |aTitle: Konstantin fedpn. Ocherk tvorchestva.
504 |aIncludes bibliographical references.
600 1 0 |aFedin, Konstantin, |d1892-1977.
984 |aANL |c891.784209 F293K

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Konstantin Fedin -->

Byl synem majitele papírnictví v Saratově, od roku 1911 studoval hospodářskou školu v Moskvě a od roku 1913 psal pro ლsopis Nový Satirikon. Pak odeᘞl na studie do Německa, kde byl za první světové války internován jako obლn nepřátelského státu. Po návratu do Ruska pracoval v lidovém komisariátu osvěty, byl hercem a novináᖞm, v obლnské válce se postavil na stranu bolᘞviků, [2] ale členem komunistické strany se nestal.

V roce 1921 byl zakljໜím členem petrohradské avantgardní literární skupiny Serapionovi bratři. V roce 1924 vydal své nejznámější dílo Města a roky, v němž vycházel ze sv࿜h válečn࿜h zážitků a vytvořil první velký román sovětské literatury, ukazujໜí různé reakce intelektuálů na revoluci (knihu v roce 1973 zfilmoval Alexandr Zarchi). [3] Vydal také historický román Bratři, humornou novelu Kronika kláštera Narovლtského, satiry na kapitalistickou společnost Únos Evropy a Sanatorium Arktur, kroniku druhé světové války Oheň, soubor črt z literárního zákulisí Utrpení starého Werthera a životopisnou studii Gorkij mezi námi. Na počátku roku 1943 zaლl pracovat na trilogii První radosti, [1] Neobyპjné léto [1] a Oheň, [1] jehož druhá část zůstala nedokonპna. V roce 1949 mu byla udělena Stalinova cena [1] .

V roce 1958 se stal členem Akademie vᆽ SSSR a v roce 1959 stanul v პle Svazu spisovatelů SSSR. [4] Byl poslancem Nejvyššího sovětu, čtyřikrát obdr៮l Leninův řฝ (1962, 1967, 1972, 1975) a v roce 1967 byl poctěn titulem Hrdina socialistické pr. [1] V roce 1968 byl nominován na Nobelovu cenu za literaturu.


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